Saturday, August 17, 2019

Iraq or its capital of Baghdad was not accustomed to “freedom”

â€Å"For, in truth, there is no sure way of holding other than by destroying, and whoever becomes master of a City accustomed to live in freedom and does not destroy it, may reckon on being destroyed by it† (Machiavelli: 11).   â€Å"Hence we may learn the lesson that on seizing a state, the usurper should make haste to inflict what injuries he must, at a stroke, that he may not have to renew them daily, but be able by their discontinuation to reassure men’s minds, and afterwards win them over by benefits†Ã‚   (23). While it can hardly be argued that Iraq or its capital of Baghdad, which reflects the divisions of Iraq, was accustomed to â€Å"freedom† before the American invasion, it at least enjoyed freedom from foreign occupation.   The above quote is relevant to the American experience in Iraq because, pursuant to the failure to destroy the enemy in the opening stages of the war, the American mission is in serious risk of being destroyed by that very enemy, years after taking nominal â€Å"control† over Iraq. A failure to pacify restive Sunni centers such as Fallujah, Ramadi, and Mosul during or immediately after the initial invasion, a failure to â€Å"destroy† in Machiavelli’s parlance, left the American occupation armies among its enemies rather than victorious over them.   This negligence, and the willingness to bypass centers of resistance on the drive to Baghdad rather than to subdue them, led directly to the next stage of failure, and the next piece of relevant advice from The Prince. â€Å"If, however, the newly acquired City or Province has been accustomed to live under a Prince, and his line is extinguished, it will be impossible for the citizens, used, on the one hand, to obey, and deprived, on the other, of their old ruler, to agree to choose a leader from among themselves†Ã‚   (11-12). The Prince in this scenario, of course, is Saddam Hussein; Hussein’s â€Å"line† was both biological, in the form of his sons Uday and Qusay, and political, in the form of the brutal and brilliantly organized Ba’ath Party.   The United States willingly destroyed the heart, brain, and nerve center of the Iraqi state and came with no workable plan to replace them.   It should hardly have come as any surprise, bearing all of this in mind, that the Iraqi people have been unable to come to any sort of consensus on what form their new government should take.   The entire gamble of the Iraq War, from the perspective of the Bush administration, hinged on the hope that Machiavelli was wrong, the hope that citizens deprived of a powerful prince would be able to peaceably choose a new leader from among themselves. A further failure of the American enterprise in Iraq has been the inability to instill a sense of loyalty for the new Iraqi government and army among a critical mass of the Iraqi people.   Loyalty should not be taken to imply affection, but merely respect and deference.   Employing historically brutal methods, Saddam Hussein garnered a certain sense of â€Å"loyalty† from the Iraqi people.   The new Iraq government, however, is not recognized by most Iraqis as the legitimate or competent representation of the Iraqi state; instead, a slew of militias and insurgent groups command far more loyalty on the street than do the national institutions sponsored and supported by the United States. The first rule of any government, democratic or not, is the rule of â€Å"one gun†.   In other words, the state must be perceived to be the only legitimate employer of violence.   That is most decidedly not the case in post-invasion Iraq.   As Machiavelli wrote, â€Å"a wise Prince should devise means whereby his subjects may at all times, whether favourable or adverse, feel the need of the State and of him, and then they will always be faithful to him†Ã‚   (26). The legitimacy and the staying power of the Iraqi government is the most important factor of the American mission in Iraq, since the emergence of an openly anti-American government would dissolve any theoretical benefit from the original invasion.   The trouble is that a self-perpetuating cycle is at work; the Iraqi government likely cannot survive without American military protection, yet that very protection ensures that the Iraqi government will never be genuinely legitimate in the eyes of its citizens.   â€Å"Mercenaries and auxiliaries are at once useless and dangerous, and he who holds his State by means of mercenary troops can never be solidly or securely seated†Ã‚   (31). In a country as divided by clan and ethnicity and religious sect as Iraq is, an invading army must have a solid appraisal of what groups it must count as allies in order to effectively govern the country.   Several of the decisions taken by the American proconsul, Jerry Bremer, imply that this appraisal was either never made or was horribly blundered.   Two such decisions come to mind.   Firstly, the Iraqi army was disbanded and its soldiers and officers were sent home without any way of supporting their families but with their weapons.   Secondly, the Ba’ath Party was dissolved, and a massive proportion of its members were excluded from meaningful participation in the new Iraq. Due to the nature of the Iraqi military, especially its officer corps, and the Ba’ath party, these decisions effectively made enemies of the Sunni minority in Iraq, which included the most militarily competent, technocratic, educated, secular, and Western-oriented elements of the society.   The very Iraqis, in other words, who could bring either the greatest harm or the greatest aid to the American occupation.   â€Å"As Princes cannot escape being hated by some, they should, in the first place, endeavor not to be hated by a class; failing in which, they must do all they can to escape the hatred of that class which is the stronger†Ã‚   (51). After dismissing the Iraqi army, and thereby humiliating a large portion of the population, it became evident that the American occupation could never succeed without an Iraqi army, as there were not nearly enough American soldiers to pacify Iraq.   The Americans therefore began training and arming a new Iraqi army, but the damage had been done.   By dismissing the nearest thing to a truly â€Å"national† institution in Ba’athist Iraq, the Americans proved their distrust of the Iraqi people.   It was therefore inevitable that the new, American-backed Iraqi army would be tainted as occupation collaborators by the population and occasionally as insurgent collaborators by the Americans. Most experts now point to the decision to disband the Iraqi army without pay and with weapons was the single biggest blunder that the United States made in Iraq.   This single decision instantly created a vast class of humiliated, impoverished, idle, and armed young men, which essentially guaranteed the emergence of an insurgency.   â€Å"By disarming, you at once giver offence, since you show your subjects that you distrust them, either as doubting their courage, or as doubting their fidelity, each of which imputations begets hatred against you†Ã‚   (56). It seems unreal now, but it is important to note that there was no insurgency in the early months of the American occupation; it seems now that the Iraqi people were giving the Americans a chance to make clear their true motives and intentions.   One wonders what may have happened had the Iraqi army been called upon by the American army to join together in rebuilding and securing Iraq, a goal that both groups shared.   One wonders what may have happened had thousands of mid-level Ba’athist technocrats been allowed to keep their jobs, such as running electrical grids, hospitals, and water purification plants.   One wonders indeed. The above quotes and examples are all variations of one unifying theme; the American errors in Iraq have been driven by a failure to recognize its natural allies, to preempt the emergence of natural enemies, and to win the trust and loyalty of the local population.   Each of these necessities was articulated in The Prince, and one wonders if George W. Bush and Donald Rumsfeld ever read the book. Works Cited Machiavelli, Niccolo.   The Prince.   New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1992.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Nitration of Methyl Benzoate

Nitration of Methyl Benzoate Introduction: Nitration is an example of an electrophile aromatic substitution reaction, where nitro (NO2) group is being substituted for a hydrogen on an aromatic compound. This is achieved by the formation of the nitronium ion by protonation of nitric acid from sulfuric acid. The zirconium ion is a strong electrophile and can react with aromatic compound such as Methyl benzoate to form an arenium ion intermediate. The arenium ion is then depronated to reform the aromatic ring and yield the final product with the newly attached nitro group.Reaction: ? Table of Physical Contents: Procedure: Obtain an ice bath. 12 ml of concentrated sulfuric acid was gathered, cooled to 0 degrees Celsius, and put in a 125-ml Erlenmeyer flash. Then 6. 1g of methyl benzoate was added. Then cooled in an ice bath to 0-10 degrees Celsius. A Pasteur pipette was used to add a cooled mixture of 4-mL of concentrated sulfuric acid and 4-mL of concentrated nitric acid. ? Figure 1: H ow to properly use a Pasteur pipette The mixture was then swirled frequently and maintained a temperature of 5C-15C. Figure 2: Swirling the mixture After all of the nitric acid was added the mixture was then warmed to room temperature. After 15 minutes, it was then poured into a 250-mL. The solid product was isolated by suction filtration using a small Buchner funnel. ? Figure3: Labeled vacuum filtration ? Figure 4: Carefully scraping out the crystals A small amount of sample was saved and weighed. Results: ? Figure 5: NMR of the product ? Discussion/Conclusion: The melting point of the recrystallized product was 73-78 degrees Celsius.This was very accurate to that of the book. In this experiment, methyl benzoate went through an electrophilic substitution reaction to form Mehyl-m-nitro benzoate, where a NO2 group was added to the methyl benzoate in the meta position. Nitric acid is not a strong enough electrophile to react with the aromatic benzene ring, but the zirconium ion with t he positive charge on the nitrogen is a strong electrophile and can react with the double bond of the methyl benzoate. The experiment was an overall success.The H NMR data successfully confirmed that the experiment was done correctly. Substances Formula Weight g/mol Quantity Moles Used Mole Ratio Boiling Point Melting Point Density g/mL Concentrated Nitric Acid 63. 01 0. 5mL 1. 192 x 10^-2 N/A N/A 121 1. 5027 Concentrated Sulfuric Acid 98. 08 1. 6mL 3. 0 x 10^-2 N/A N/A N/A 1. 841 Ethanol 46. 07 2-3mL N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Methyl Benzoate 136. 15 0. 55g 4. 039x 10^-3 1 to 1 113-115 N/A N/A Methyl Nitro- Benzoate 181. 13 Product N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

Thursday, August 15, 2019

How I Would Change The Immigration Healthcare Reform Essay

The debate over a comprehensive healthcare package has continued to rage on even after Obama signed the healthcare reform bill on May 4, 2010. Decades of rift and bad blood had finally culminated in the legislation of the healthcare reform. The stage is now set for the implementation of the long awaited savior of the masses. However, the healthcare reform package is not to be entirely loved, in as much as there is conflict in the aspect of immigration and healthcare provision, and the issue of immigrants and denied access to health insurance cannot be over sighted- at least for the illegal ones. That illegal immigrants would not be included in the federal health insurance scheme is a time bomb waiting to explode, as even documented immigrants were shorn of access to Medicaid in their first five years of residence, in the past. One can argue that it would not be right for tax payers to subsidize healthcare benefits for illegal immigrants who probably contribute less to the national income, but what about those who are earning well and have a secure source of livelihood. Whether â€Å"well to do† illegal immigrants would be allowed to purchase their insurance on the health insurance exchange is another matter to consider. As the keyword of this tenure has been change, there should be no frets when I put myself in the shoes of the president on how I would change the immigration healthcare reform. The fact is that, depriving illegal immigrants’ access to healthcare insurance would only increase numbers in emergency rooms, invariably service provision and pressure on resources. In view of this, I would allow illegal immigrants to access full government healthcare benefits, and if that is so difficult, I would permit those that have the financial capacity to purchase their healthcare insurance outright. After all, good healthcare should be available to everyone.

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

Compare and contrast Blake and Wordsworth’s view of London Essay

The poets Blake and Wordsworth both wrote poems about England’s capital city, London. The poets themselves each came from different backgrounds which may have influenced their view of London. Wordsworth was born and brought up in the Lake District and spent the majority of his life there, which may have led him to concentrate on the natural features of London. In contrast Blake was more aware of the industry and poverty of the capital City. He had lived all his life in London, receiving little formal schooling and even witnessing the death of his brother from consumption. Wordsworth’s poem â€Å"Composed upon Westminster Bridge† presents a calm and relaxed view looking across the water and the city. He writes about what he sees and views London as a majestic royal palace. Wordsworth reflects upon his subject with deep felt emotion, seeing it as a spiritual place of peace. â€Å"Dull would be the soul who could pass by, a sight so touching in its majesty†. He describes a special morning when the city seems to be asleep and is in awe of the tranquillity â€Å"never saw I, never felt, a calm so deep!†. Wordsworth is therefore commenting on the natural beauty that he sees rather than the daily life behind this scene. In contrast Blake’s poem is entitled â€Å"London†. Talking directly about the city itself it is the account of a person walking down the street saying what he sees. He is more concerned with the people who make up the City. Instead of seeing beauty he sees pain in the emotions of the people he meets. â€Å"In every cry of every man†. Blake concentrates on the oppression and poverty of the city. He blames the Church and authorities for their lack of attention and care for the people of London. â€Å"Every blackening Church appals†. The tone of the poem shows a lack of awareness; some safe inside while pain goes on outside, â€Å"and the hapless soldier’s sigh runs in blood down Palace walls†. In keeping with this pessimistic view, Blake’s poem is structured in a methodical and measured tone. It is written to a steady beat in four stanzas. This has the feel of a walking pace as he wanders around the city viewing its misery. Blake uses repetition to emphasise his point â€Å"in every cry, in every voice†. It is a formal bleak approach giving the bare facts as he sees them. Wordsworth’s poem is altogether more flamboyant. As a ‘romantic’ poet he writes this poem in the form of a sonnet. This style is mainly used in ‘love’ poetry. This structure emphasises the way Wordsworth concentrates on the physical aspects Wordsworth views around him. One line flows into another in an informal way. It is descriptive and reflective but does not attempt to look beyond the outward appearance â€Å"all bright and glittering in the smokeless air†. Wordsworth as a rich man, the son of a lawyer, views London on face value. He looks down upon the city from his lofty position unaware of the poverty below. His tone is full of grandeur â€Å"earth has not anything to show more fair†. He feels moved in his spirit and in harmony with his environment. Wordsworth’s tone is full of wonder, focusing on the magnificent buildings and seeing the city itself as a living being full of emotion. Blake expresses his feelings of frustration and sadness. He describes â€Å"chartered† streets and â€Å"chartered† Thames, which emphasises how everything has been taken over and oppressed. He comes from a lower middle class background; the son of a hosier and the tone of this poem expresses his awareness of the poverty around him â€Å"marks of weakness, marks of woes†. This sadness turns to aggression as the poem proceeds, criticising the Church and even the corruption of marriage. â€Å"And blights with plagues the marriage hearse†. There is a hopelessness and desperation expressed within this poem. Blake refers to â€Å"mind-forged manacles†, the metaphorical chains in which the people’s minds are held. This is typical of the negative images used throughout. The one beat rhythm and child-like tone emphasises the steady march towards an inescapable fate. This language underlines the lack of control which people have, their lives grinding out a pre-set pattern. Everything is â€Å"owned† – each chartered street. Even the Church is â€Å"blackening†, sinful, cruel, with a lack of purity and care. The oxymoron â€Å"marriage hearse† shows the conflict within society – the hypocrisy of marriage whilst poverty encourages prostitution to flourish â€Å"the youthful harlot’s curse†. The words are stark and shocking, exaggerating the problem to gain our attention â€Å"blasts the new-born infant’s tear†. The language used by Wordsworth is full of splendour â€Å"never did the sun more beautifully steep†. He paints pictures with his words, using the images of the â€Å"shining sun†, the â€Å"gliding river† the â€Å"beauty of the morning†. He extends a simile of the city by personifying it as clothed in sleep. â€Å"The city now doth like a garment where the beauty of the morning, silent, bare†. Wordsworth creates a feeling of awe and wonder at the beauty of creation. He uses the metaphor of the city like a â€Å"mighty heart lying still†. The sounds evoked by Wordsworth poem are very peaceful and calm â€Å"the river glideth†, â€Å"the morning silent†. In contrast Blake uses sharp sounds which are onomatopoeic in nature – â€Å"blasts†, â€Å"curse†, â€Å"cry†. He uses a strong heavy rhythm emotive of the oppression felt with repetitive force â€Å"and mark in every face I meet, marks of weakness, marks of woe†. The tone of Wordsworth’s poem is soft and lilting â€Å"a sight so touching†, â€Å"a calm so deep†. This is set against the harsh cry of Blake’s London. The approach used by these two writers promotes a different response from the reader. Wordsworth’s flowery imagery encourages a warm view of London. He is optimistic in his approach, concentrating as he does upon the immediate sights and sounds of a peaceful morning scene. Blake however conjures up a feeling of misery for the plight of the people of London locked in a prison of poverty which he blames on the â€Å"establishment† who have no care for their situation. Blake concentrates on social injustice, perhaps borne out of his own upbringing, whilst Wordsworth seems unaware of anything but the natural beauty of the environment and not its inhabitants. Two seemingly different views of one city seen from varying perspectives.

Tuesday, August 13, 2019

Disussion thread for Week 2, 3, and 4 Assignment

Disussion thread for Week 2, 3, and 4 - Assignment Example Ken is a competent nurse. Patients, hospital administration and physicians are passionate about his job. Therefore, it is recommendable to find a solution for him to prevent endangering patient’s life. Ken’s situation is of interest because his primary role is to provide patient safety. However, alcohol abuse hinders his efficiency and effectiveness in role. Therefore, there is a need for a remedy. Ken is a victim of alcohol abuse because of various reasons. He is stressed by domestic problems which makes him report to work drunk. He does not relate well to his co-workers that makes him lonely at the workplace. Therefore, it is the obligation of the hospital management to help Ken adjust to the problem. Last week a patient reported that he is not getting any relief from the pain medication that Ann had administered earlier. After contacting Ann, she was impaired in the Emergency Department and became upset by the interrogation on why the patient was complaining. She had injected herself with the drug. It is unethical for Ann to abuse a patient’s prescription. The use of prescription drugs results in either slow patient recovery or death, which is a medical negligence and malpractice hence unethical (Thomas & Siela, 2011). Primary care for patient safety is a significant purpose for nurse functions. Nurses should perform their duties with the moral code of conduct in utmost proficiency. Therefore, medical malpractice is a nuisance and unethical hence Ann’s behavior is a matter of concern that requires a remedy. Ann’s unethical behavior is caused by personal and workplace factors. Using patient’s prescription enables her relieve herself from stress and workplace conflicts. The act, however, is risky and unjustified to uphold patient safety, which is the primary function of a hospital. A scope of practice refers to the expert activities defined under state law. The scope of practice for a nurse is determined by each state’s nurse practice act.

Monday, August 12, 2019

Thinking Like An Economist Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Thinking Like An Economist - Essay Example Thus, trade barriers will reduce market efficiency. The reason is simple that the comparative advantage that is there in free trade system will be lost and the economies will have to produce each and everything for themselves which will not allow for specialization and the benefits gained from it. Each country has specific resources in form of labor, capital, technology and knowledge (skill) and these resources can be used to produce certain type of goods better than other type of goods. Thus, if each country is able to recognize what it can produce best, the whole world will benefit by producing only what it excels others at producing and exchanging that with nations that produce other things that they excel at thus allowing for larger number of each good produced for the same amount of resources. Other positives of free trade system include greater variety of goods and services, efficient use of the scarce resources and a greater competition for the domestic industry. Therefore, we can say that since having trade barriers causes the economy to produce inside its maximum potential with given amount of resources, that is, the production possibilities frontier, a reduction in trade barriers would mean production moving closer to the production possibilities frontier. ... Q.2) An economy that is producing inside the production possibilities frontier is not realizing its full potential and there is a room for betterment. Such a situation, where the economy does not operate at its full potential arises in two situations: 1) when the economy is unable to employ all its resources of production, for example, labor available but not employed; 2) misallocation of resources. The production possibilities frontier tells us the maximum quantity of two products that can be produced using the current amount of resources. However, if available resources are not fully utilized, the output will be less than the full potential. Using 4 out of 5 machines available due to fuel shortage can be another example of underutilization of available resources. Misallocation of resources happens when an economy starts producing goods that it does not specialize in. This will require the particular nation to use comparatively more resources to produce the same amount of that good than a nation who has comparative advantage in producing that good. Had the nation employed the same resources in producing the other goods that it specializes in, the economy would have been better off by being on or closer to the production possibilities curve. The inefficient use of resources implies that the economy could be producing more without adding a single unit of labor or capital by allocating resources efficiently on the basis of comparative advantage (Tregarthen & Rittenberg, Chapter 2: Confronting Scarcity: Choices in Production, 2009). Q.3) Economic growth refers to the state where the production possibilities curve of an economy expands or shifts outwards. This means that the economy is able to produce more with the given amount of resources than it

Sunday, August 11, 2019

My personal philosophy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

My personal philosophy - Essay Example This is why my biggest motivation and mission is to proudly offer nonjudgmental and unbiased care particularly to those in need regardless of their class in life, race, lifestyle choices, spirituality, disability and financial status. My philosophy therefore makes me understand that as a nurse I have a responsibility to my patients and must offer them with holistic, safe, patient-centered, round the clock care. In addition, it makes me bear in mind that patients under my care are not mere statistics, medical conditions or just room numbers but individuals that need and deserve personalized care and attention. Professionally, nurses are supposed to use clinical judgment so as to assist the requirements of their patients. Being an advocate, I am obligated to empower my patients by encouraging them to engage in active partnership as far as their individual care is concerned and participate in mutual setting of goals between patient and care providers. As a nurse I should maintain and uphold patient confidentiality with the exception of when the law mandates us to report as a duty. My philosophy also reminds me that I must constantly educate not only my patients but their families as well especially on treatments, healthy behaviors and diseases so as to enhance their outcomes. Lastly I am also obligated to strive to positively model healthy behaviours in my own life in the belief that I will offer better care to patients if I care for myself first. In conclusion, my philosophy enables me to be committed to keeping myself with the up to date skills and knowledge together with seeking self-enhancement via perpetual learning. This ensures that I do not remain in my belief but instead progress professionally via evidence-based technological and practice advances. My philosophy ensures that I will always keep on learning, not only from journals and textbooks but also from various interactions with my colleagues and involvement