Friday, December 27, 2019

Roy Plunkett and the Invention of Teflon

Dr. Roy Plunkett discovered PTFE or polytetrafluoroethylene, the basis of Teflon ®, in April 1938. It’s one of those discoveries that happened by accident. Plunkett Discovers PTFE Plunkett held a Bachelor of Arts degree, a Master of Science degree, and his PhD in organic chemistry when he went to work at the DuPont research laboratories in Edison, New Jersey. He  was working with gases related to Freon ®Ã‚  refrigerants when he stumbled upon PTFE. Plunkett and his assistant, Jack Rebok, were charged with developing an alternative refrigerant and came up with tetrafluorethylene or TFE. They ended up making about 100 pounds of TFE and were faced with the dilemma of storing it all. They placed the TFE in small cylinders and froze them.  When they later checked on the refrigerant, they found the cylinders effectively empty, even though they felt heavy enough that they should still have been full. They cut one open and found that the TFE had polymerized into a white, waxy powder -- polytetrafluoroethylene or PTFE resin. Plunkett was an inveterate scientist. He had this new substance on his hands, but what to do with it? It was slippery, chemically stable and had a high melting point. He began playing with it, attempting to find out if it would serve any useful purpose at all. Ultimately, the challenge was taken out of his hands when he was promoted and sent to a different division. The TFE was sent to DuPont’s Central Research Department. The scientists there were instructed to experiment with the substance, and Teflon ® was born. Teflon Properties The molecular weight of Teflon ® can exceed 30 million, making it one of the largest molecules known to man. A colorless, odorless powder, it is a fluoroplastic with many properties that  give it an increasingly wide range of uses. The surface is so slippery, virtually nothing sticks to it or is absorbed by it – the Guinness Book of World Records once listed it as the slipperiest substance on earth. It’s still the only known substance that a geckos feet cant stick to.   The Teflon Trademark PTFE was first marketed under the DuPont Teflon ® trademark in 1945.   No wonder Teflon ® was chosen to be used on non-stick cooking pans, but it was originally used only for industrial and military purposes because it was so expensive to make. The first non-stick pan using  Teflon ® was marketed in France as Tefal in 1954. The U.S. followed with its own Teflon ®-coated pan -- the Happy Pan -- in 1861. Teflon Today Teflon ® can be found just about everywhere these days: as a stain repellant in fabrics, carpets and furniture, in automobile windshield wipers, hair products, lightbulbs, eyeglasses, electrical wires and infrared decoy flares. As for those cooking pans, feel free to take a wire whisk or any other utensil to them – unlike in the old days, you won’t risk scratching the Teflon ® coating because its been improved. . Dr. Plunkett stayed with DuPont until his retirement in 1975. He died in 1994, but not before being inducted into the Plastics Hall of Fame and the National Inventors’ Hall of Fame.

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Lung Cancer The Most Common Cancer - 1547 Words

Lung Cancer Lung cancer is a tumor that affects either one or both of the lungs.A primary cancer begins in the lungs and a secondary cancer begins in another place in the body and makes its way up towards the lungs. Lung cancer is the 5th most common cancer. In Australia 59% of males were diagnosed were as 41% of Australian females were diagnosed. Symptoms A lasting cough that continually gets worse. Pains in the chest that hurt or gets worse when you laugh breath deeply etc. Hoarseness- A scratchy and weak voice, or difficulty to speak. Loss of appetite and weight. Coughing up blood, spit or phloem. Shortness of breath, not being able to talk for a long time. Develop a tired and weak feeling. Infections such as bronchitis etc, goes and†¦show more content†¦A CT scan provides a more detailed look at the tumour and it also provides information on lymph nodes and other organs in the area. PET Scan- A PET [positron emission tomography] scan is only had at major hospitals. It is most commonly carried out on patients with lung cancer were a biopsy wasn t possible/inconclusive. Before having this scan you will be injected with a radioactive glucose solution, which takes roughly about 30-90 minutes to spread around the body, and once it spread the scan can commence. Its scans for hot spots in the body where active cells located, such as cancer cells. Although all activity doesn t necessarily mean there are cancer cells that s why you must have a specialist to examine the PET scan. Sputum Cytology- Sputum Cytology is a liquid examination of mucus [liquid phlegm] from your lungs [sputum]. You are able to get a sample by coughing very deeply and forcefully, to keep the sample put it in a tight jar in the fridge until the doctor must examine it for any abnormal cells. Fine Needle for Aspiration It is a way to obtain cells used for diagnosis, and is best used for when the tumor is on the outer parts of the lung. Using an x-Ray machine, to locate the best place to insert the needle through the chest wall into the tumor. When the doctors remove the needle it can withdraws a small piece of the tumor this

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Psychological Abnormality

Question: Discuss about the Psychological Abnormality. Answer: Introduction: Psychological abnormality is difficult to define in the English language. How to decide who is abnormal or normal behavior? What is the definition of abnormality? In simple terms, an abnormality is an individual's mental condition or behaviour that deviates or does not align with what is considered the appropriate level of functioning in the society and is distressing or harmful to the individual and the surrounding people. Abnormality can be defined in four ways which are the deviation from the social norm, statistical infrequency, failure to function normally, and deviation from ideal mental health (Sue et al. 2015). The essay outlines and evaluates two of the ways of defining abnormality and later explains abnormal psychology on the psychoanalytical model. The first way to define abnormality is deviation from the social norm (Gross 2015). Social norms refer to standards of accepted behavior in the society set by the social group and include expectations and morals about how to think and behave (Bryce 2013). It means that an individual is not behaving according to the societal norms. A particular pattern of behavior is not stated by law but is perceived by the society to be normal and acceptable, and any deviance from a thus pattern is treated as the abnormality. For example, society has set rules for ways of dressing, eating, greeting older adults, opening doors for women, and others. It can be argued that this definition does not consider if a particular behavior of an individual is due to his or her comfort level before labeling him or her as psychologically abnormal. However, in a majority of the cases, it is apparent that the pattern of the behavior that is considered as deviating from the social norms are unlikely to represent men tal illness. However, this way of defining abnormality has several limitations. This definition may vary between cultures (Maddux et al. 2012). For example, hearing voices after the recent death of loved ones may be considered schizophrenia in the western part of the world, whereas in the African-American tribe it is treated as the blessing. Moreover, in a given situation different cultures may behave in different ways. However, social norms changes with time (Harvey et al. 2012), therefore, behavior not accepted in the past may be accepted in the present society. For example, homosexuality was branded as the mental disorder by the American Psychiatric Association until 1973, but they are more accepted in the present society (Butcher et al. 2013). This argument was supported by Gross (2015) who in turn highlighted that this definition fails to differentiate between a person with the persistent mental illness and a criminal. It may happen so that a robber is not abnormal but have a criminal mind. This definition does not also allow for the eccentric behavior commented (Bryce 2013). It is unlikely to consider a person psychologically abnormal for wearing unusual clothingduring leisure time. The second definition is "failure to function adequately." People fail to perform their routine daily activities due to depression or state of anxiety. They may exhibit unpredictable or irrational behavior due to personal distress and hence fail to adopt a healthy lifestyle (McDougall 2015). This definition refers to how an alleged abnormality of a person hampers their ability to continue with their day-to-day existence. People with eating disorder do not follow their natural survival instinct for eating. Therefore, they could be considered as psychologically abnormal. It is indicative of the fact that the individual requires professional assistance. Durand and Barlow (2012) argued that if dysfunction is accompanied with pathological characteristics than it can be considered as the psychological abnormality. This argument is justified because an inability to make good relationships with people may be due to personal loss, or deep sorrow or difficulty to adapt to new situation or plac e may be due to lack of knowledge but not due to mental illness. If this definition were true than all the aboriginal people and ethnic groups would be labeled an abnormal as they highly exhibit stressful behavior due to persistent factors of exploitation, deprivation, and persecution. The drawback of the definition is judging what factors effect and do not affect an individuals ability to function adequately (Eysenck and Wilson 2013). It is good to consider the context of a particular behavior before labeling a person as mentally ill. For example, a hunger strike is discomforting to observers, but it is not an abnormality. It can be argued that this definition is no applicable cross-culturally (Sue et al. 2015). For example, a person may exhibit behavior that may be considered normal in his or her culture but may align with the definition of the abnormality in the western culture. The another drawback of this definition is that labeling an individual as psychologically abnormal may create a long-term stigma. Consequently, the person may adopt the same behavior permanently. Supporting this argument various psychologists comment that there are many people with different types of psychological disorders but are found to look at family, work, adapt to new situations a nd exhibit rationale behavior. The psychodynamic model of abnormality developed by Sigmund Freud explains abnormal behavior as a cause of conflict of forces in mind (Kline 2014). The underlying principle of this model is unresolved conscious conflicts in early childhood creates repressed thoughts and emotions that in turn contribute to the psychological illness. According to this model, the basis of the conflicts organizing the mind is Id, Ego, and Superego which means the unconscious wishes, mechanism of coping and defense, and the conscience. This model includes ideas such as meaningful events affecting the unconscious mind or the idea of the effect of the parent/child relationship on behavior and feelings. Under this model, the main cure for illness is "free association." In this type of treatment, an individual is free to speak anything he or she wants while the psychiatristactively listens to analyze the cause of the trouble. The essay has evaluated two ways of defining psychological abnormality. These definitions although useful, are not fit for cross-cultural applications. It is indeed difficult to define abnormality. The viewpoints of society regarding normality or abnormality will always be viewed against what is acceptable or not acceptable behavior. However; the psychodynamic approach is more acceptable as it is the outcome of centuries of trial and error. References Bryce, J., 2013. DP4334 Psychology A: History and Development of Psychology. Butcher, J.N., Mineka, S. and Hooley, J.M., 2013.Abnormal psychology. New York: Pearson. Durand, V.M. and Barlow, D.H., 2012.Essentials of abnormal psychology. Cengage Learning. Eysenck, H.J. and Wilson, G.D., 2013.The Experimental Study of Freudian Theories (Psychology Revivals). Routledge. Gross, R., 2015.Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behaviour 7th Edition. Hodder Education. Harvey, P.D., Heaton, R.K., Carpenter, W.T., Green, M.F., Gold, J.M. and Schoenbaum, M., 2012. Functional impairment in people with schizophrenia: focus on employability and eligibility for disability compensation.Schizophrenia research,140(1), pp.1-8. Kline, P., 2014.Psychology and Freudian theory: An introduction. Routledge. Maddux, J.E., Gosselin, J.T. and Winstead, B.A., 2012. Conceptions of psychopathology.Psychopathology: Foundations for a contemporary understanding, pp.3-22. McDougall, W., 2015.An outline of abnormal psychology. Routledge. Sue, D., Sue, D.W., Sue, S. and Sue, D.M., 2015.Understanding abnormal behavior. Cengage Learning.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

The Vietnam War Essays (425 words) - Socialism, Asia, Vietnam War

The Vietnam War The Vietnam War was a brutal war that affected millions of people in many different countries. All wars start because their is a difference in people's opinions, and the Vietnam War was no different. It started because France and a Vietnam leader, Ho Chi Minh, had a difference in opinion about the type of government Vietnam should have. To find out why the war broke out you will have to go back to the 1750's. This is where the French started their so called protectorate state of Vietnam. For many years the people of Vietnam protested but could not organize into a force powerful enough to resist the French. Then in 1946 a communist educated individual called Ho Chi Minh organized the people of North Vietnam and drove out the French rulers in a war that took eight years. During peace settlements in Geneva they allowed North and South Vietnam to become separate nations, divided on the 17th parallel. This was only to last for two years. After two years the two countries would then vote on a common leader and reunite the two countries once more. This never happened. South Vietnam was afraid that a Communist leader would be chosen and the nation would be in ruins. Communist guerrillas in South Vietnam opposing the canceled election began attacks on Southern Vietnam and remaining French officials to gain co! ntrol of South Vietnam. If North Vietnam was to begin their invasion of South Vietnam the Communist ruler Ho Chi Minh was sure to have complete control over the nation and spread his ideas of communism to neighboring countries. The United States thought that this should not happen so in 1965 the president ordered the bombing of North Vietnam and the landing of US troops in South Vietnam. This then caused North Vietnam to send regular units to the South. That therefore, cause more US troops to become involved. All of this kept building and building until it was a full scale war. The main reason that the Vietnam War broke out was that the old imperial France thought they could keep a so called protectorate state without giving them any freedom. Then a communist leader came along that united the people and took over in the name of freedom. The U.S. thought that if Vietnam became communist then neighboring countries would soon follow. They did not want communism to spread so they tried to stop it. Stop it by war and it did not work out like they thought it would.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Diviersity In Families Essays - Pedagogy, Teaching,

Diviersity In Families Celebrating Families Lesson Plan 1. Overview This lesson, which is intended for a first grade classroom, and is approximately 40 minutes in length, will deal with diverse families. I will read the book to the students, and then we will discuss the different types of families, and how each one of our families is different. The purpose is to show each child that there are many families like and unlike theirs; and that this is socially acceptable. The concepts and themes to be taught are interdependence, identity, and culture. 2. New York State Learning Standards Social Studies/Standard 1/Elementary/Strand 2/gather and?and community 3. Objectives At the conclusion of this lesson: ? Students will appreciate diverse families. (Affective) ? Students will understand that every family is unique and different. (Cognitive) ? Students will be prepared to accurately trace an immediate family map. (Psychomotor) 4. Materials Teacher's Materials 1. Social studies resource guide with core curriculum. 1999. p. 22. 2. NYS learning standards for social studies. 1996. p.2. 3. Celebrating Families. Rosemarie Hausherr. 1997. Student Materials 4. Pen or Pencil 5. Graffiti Board 6. My Family information sheet 5. Procedure a. Anticipatory Set Can anyone tell me what a family is? (Knowledge) How can families be different? We are going to learn about families today; families like yours, families that are different than yours. b. Procedure 1. Introduce the book Celebrating Families. 2. Read the book to the entire class. Be sure to show all of the pictures. This is important. 3. When finished with the book, split the class into three groups. 4. These groups will each have a graffiti board to write on. Have them write about some of these questions, along with any other interesting facts or notes about families: ? List the members of your family (Knowledge). ? Explain what your families do together (Comprehension). ? Relate your families to others (Application). ? Study the families in the book; write how your family is different from one of the families (Analysis). ? Create a family that you would like to be in when you grow up (Synthesis) ? Write about how you accept one of the families in the book (Evaluation). 5. Share each group's graffiti board. Give five minutes for the students to observe what was written 6. Hang the graffiti boards on the wall. Keep them up until our unit on families are finished. c. Closure What have we learned about families today? (Evaluation) We are going to have an exciting project for homework tonight. 6. Evaluation ? Did the students work together effectively? ? Did the students understand that families are different? ? Did the students celebrate family diversity? ? Did the students reach the goals objectives? 7. Extended Assignment Homework: Take home the My Family information sheet. Have your parents help you get the names of everyone in your family. Have your parents read the directions at the top of the page. We will put together family trees in the next class. Bibliography 1. Social studies resource guide with core curriculum. 1999. p. 22. 2. NYS learning standards for social studies. 1996. p.2. 3. Celebrating Families. Rosemarie Hausherr. 1997. Education

Saturday, November 23, 2019

The French Verb Conjugations of Bouger (to Move)

The French Verb Conjugations of Bouger (to Move) The French verb  bouger  is one of the many ways to say to move. It is a rather easy verb to conjugate, though there is a spelling change that you will want to watch out for. The Many Ways to Say to Move in French The English to move can take on many different meanings depending on the context. It can mean to move something, to move your home or yourself, or even to move someone emotionally. In French, there is a separate verb for all of these instances and some are rather specific. The subject of this lesson is bouger. Specifically, this means to move as in to budge, stir, or shift. Explore these other French verbs and make sure you choose the correct to move to relay your true meaning. dà ©mà ©nager  - to move housetransporter - to transportremuer and à ©mouvoir - to disturb or stirmarcher - to walkjouer - to playdescendre - to descendavancer - to advanceprogresser - to progressinciter - to encourage The Spelling Changes in Conjugating  Bouger Bouger  is a  spelling change verb. Its an easy one to conjugate when you understand how and why the spelling changes. Typically, in French verbs that end in -er, the  nous  present tense (for example) would drop the -er  and add -ons. If we did that with a word that ends with -ger, the G would have a hard sound. We really want to retain that soft G pronunciation, so an E is added before the O or an A. This applies to a few of the conjugations below. Also, all verbs that end in -ger  follow this rule. The Simple Conjugations of  Bouger Beyond that minor spelling change,  bouger  is a relatively straightforward verb to conjugate. This is required so the verb matches the subject and the present, future, or past tense. The chart will help you learn the  bouger  conjugations. Pair the subject pronoun the  je, tu, nous, etc. with the proper tense. For instance, I move is je bouge and we will move is nous bougerons. Subject Present Future Imperfect je bouge bougerai bougeais tu bouges bougeras bougeais il bouge bougera bougeait nous bougeons bougerons bougions vous bougez bougerez bougiez ils bougent bougeront bougeaient The Present Participle of  Bouger The  present participle  of bouger  is bougeant. While we would normally drop the E when adding the -ant  ending, this is another instance of that necessary spelling change.   Not only is this a verb, but it can act as an adjective, gerund, or noun when needed. The Passà © Composà © of  Bouger Other than the imperfect, you can also express the past tense of  bouger  using the  passà © composà ©. To do so, you must conjugate  avoir, which is an  auxiliary or helping  verb. You will also use the  past participle  of bougà ©. With those two elements, the conjugation is easy. For I moved, the French is jai bougà © and we moved is  nous avons bougà ©. More  Bouger Conjugations The present, future, and past tense conjugations should be the focus of your French studies at first. As you progress, you may also find the following conjugations useful. The subjunctive and conditional are used when the act of moving is in some way questionable or dependent. The passà © simple and imperfect subjunctive are primarily reserved for writing. Subject Subjunctive Conditional Pass Simple Imperfect Subjunctive je bouge bougerais bougeai bougeasse tu bouges bougerais bougeas bougeasses il bouge bougerait bougea bouget nous bougions bougerions bougemes bougeassions vous bougiez bougeriez bougetes bougeassiez ils bougent bougeraient bougrent bougeassent To express  bouger  in short, assertive commands or requests you will use the imperative verb form. When doing so, there is no need to include the subject pronoun as it is implied in the verb. Instead of nous bougeons, you can simplify it to bougeons. Imperative (tu)                 bouge (nous)        Ã‚  bougeons (vous)           bougez

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Why video games are violent Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Why video games are violent - Essay Example In order to answer this question, there are different angles from which the issue can be observed indicating the difference levels of the presence and absence of violence in video games. Video games are violent because they offer an alternative form through which one can â€Å"†¦absolve themselves of guilt or justify certain morally questionable acts†¦Ã¢â‚¬  whereby video game players can release their inner feelings of violence that cannot be directed towards other people in the real world (Schaffer). With this in mind, video games are violent because they are virtual worlds in which there are no consequences for engaging in whatever violent acts that one pleases (Videogame Addiction). Therefore, video games are violent to provide a safe proving ground in which violent behavior can be virtualized and enacted in a safe manner that cannot harm anyone, the player included. Arguments are that this is the main reason to rid real life situations of potential acts of violence t hat may lead to severe consequences such as death (Schaffer).

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Project Management Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Project Management - Term Paper Example In the case of the first question, two good sample projects would be the automation of a marketing firm and creating an antivirus product for personal and business use. When it comes to software life cycle, the waterfall model fits the automation system for a marketing firm as it expands its services online.2 Through its entirely programmed sales page, sales presentation and email response to its target market, it only requires the plan and specifications, program design, application, validation, installation and maintenance. On the other hand, antivirus program needs agile development model as the testing, feedbacks and upgrades must be frequent as the viruses easily change and new ones are created by the hour. When it comes to the role of the project manager, he needs to put more efforts on the antivirus program which needs more effort than the automated marketing system which may not need any upgrade. 2. The second question deals with conflict. Conflict pertains to any clash betwe en ideas and may become personal as well. Although people at work must remain as objective as possible, sometimes conflict goes out of bounds and the people involved attack one another personally. It may develop early on or late in the project. An early conflict may take in the form of an idea to make the use of resources more efficient. To solve that, people must consider the advantages and disadvantages and come into agreement by integrating some ideas from both parties.3 When it comes to late conflict, it may include solutions to improve the software. Again, people may combine their ideas for the betterment. 3. The third would deal with Pareto Principle. The principle indicates that 80% of the results come from 20% of the causes. The very meaning laid down by Pareto can be dubbed as 80-20 Rule. In the context of a project manager, he can deal with it as a disturbance handler. He must be able to figure out the 20% of the causes that can bring the 80% of the results so he can direc t his staffs to focus on the 20%. For examples, if they get errors on their software, they must identify the 80% of the bugs and get to know the 20% of the codes that may bring about the majority of the bugs.4 He may develop plans to make the whole search for the bug origin in a systematic way. 4. The fourth question deals with four qualities needed for the criteria in choosing a good model. Money required, time needed, manpower required and ease of use or practicality. Money is needed as anything can be purchased by money especially the needed resources. Time required is necessary also since it dictates the span in terms of days, weeks or months to accomplish the project. Manpower needed is also important as it brings about the necessary staffs to work on the project and ease of use talks about the program being user-friendly.5 5. Question five deals with payback and earned value. The former pertains to the time needed to receive the money invested while the latter pertains to the ability of the project manager to check the project performance and evaluate the current accomplishments and compared them with the objectives or desired results.6 6. The last question depends upon the model made by Noland regarding the process maturity. It pertains to the degree of performance at its maximum possibility. The five stages include

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Presentation Of The Greek Society Essay Example for Free

Presentation Of The Greek Society Essay One of the prolific poets that ever emerged from Greece is Homer. Not only was he known for his poetic exploits, his works are one of the works that gave an idea of what life was like in Ancient Greece. Early philosophers of the Ionian school found his work intriguing and His work was criticized by Thales. For the purpose of this essay, focus will be drawn on one of his works, Iliad. It is impossible to speak of Greek literature without considering Iliad. Iliad is not just a literary piece; it gives an account of the wars and conquests in Ancient Greece. It informs us about of the various doctrines held by the Greeks and how they conceive of a lot of things. The work is written in a prose form and is divided into Books from I to XXIV. As seen from Iliad, the ancient Greek society was characterized with conquests and battles. There is the innate desire of men to engage other nations in war. It shows the lust of men for power and their thirst for fame and glory. There was also the belief in gods and spirits. The Greeks are depicted as set of people who believes and explains everything that happens to the as an act of the gods. When good things happen, it is so because the gods are happy with you. Hoverer, when things are going out of hand, it is conceived that the gods are angry. The poem also depicts the ancient society as a society that lives of men were not regarded. There was no room for pity because if a man was considered to be a coward if he allows feelings of compassion. Men are motivated by a sense of duty to their nation and they fight for the case they believe in. these people fought, shed their blood and gave their lives for what they believe in. it was a time that was characterized with battles and for a man to be honored, you have to be a soldier or someone who has gone to battle.

Friday, November 15, 2019

Malaysias Management of Resources

Malaysias Management of Resources 1.0 INTRODUCTION Economies can be defined as, thrifty management of resources, such as land, labour, capital and enterprenuership learned to practice economy in making out the household budget. In factors of production there are commodities or services used to produce goods and services. And also explores how people and society try to use resources available , which have many different uses, in order to produce different goods and distribute among people. According to economist Lionel Robbins who defined economics as The science which studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses. The primary factors facilitate production but neither become part of the product as raw materials. One of the factor of production is mainly called Land includes not only the site of production but natural resources above or below the soil. What is scarcity? Scarcity is a things that has some problems in economic having because of humans nature unlimited needs and wants. Humans were always wants more and more thats unlimited goals. This world has a limited resources which can be used. What will happened when all of the four factor of production is limited? Factor of productions is defined as the input that used in the production of goods or services in the attempt to make an economic profit and also production can be defined as the resources that required to generaton of goods and services. This resources are generally classifeid into four major groups which are land, labour, capital and enterprenuership. So what is land? One of the factor of production is mainly called land, includes not only the site of production but natural resources above or below the soil. Land is a natural resource that whose supply is generation by generation fixed. Land contains natural resources that a production of good and also a capital goods. Example of the natural resources in land is petroleum, coal, diamond, timber, gold and many more. If this land is became limited there are huge problem will this world faced, some of the problem is natural resources cannot be extracted or maybe become limited. Among this there a another factor of production is called capital, what is capital? Is that capital is important to our economy? Capital is a money. Capital played main role in this factor of production because the capital is helped we to buy the raw materials, machines, equipment, tools and many more. The next factor of production is labour. What is the meaning of labour? Labour is means the people is working for a wages. The size of a labour force can be determined by population of adult in a country. Labour consists of the both physical and mental abilities of the workers to work in a company or in a working place to get a wages. Lets say the labour has been limited, what will happened? They cannot produce goods and sevices, example like, if one companys labour is limited the production of product will stopped and will effect the company, because of this the economy will be effect. The last things in factor of production is entrepeurnership is a defined as a businessman, is a individual who uses all the resources effectively to run production. He should be risk taker and wiling to accept new challengers or wiling to accept lost or profits on their business. 1.2 WHAT IS SCARCITY? In other word for scarcity is means not enough resources. The main cause this scarcity is happened because of unlimited needs and wants of human. For an example just ask with the people out there would you like more luxury life most of them will answered Yes. People were looking foe more money for buy more goods and services. This problem not only carried by poor people its also to most wealthy people were include in this problem. In any time this world can be limited amount of goods and services such as for land when we compared Malaysia and Singapore, Malaysia has big land then Singapore, so the land is so limited to Singapore then Malaysia. In Singapore the singaporeans can built their own property like houses and more this is called scarcity. The example of capital became limited is to run one company he must have capital for the production if its limited there are dont have any company industry. Limitation of third factor of production is labour, for example if the labour became limited the are no one to work at companies, and the companies will not run any production. Lastly about enterprenuer, lets take that the enterprenuer is became limited what wiil happened, there are no new production of product, the procduction not run as planned and more. To outcome these factor of production problem, must tasks on the evidence of scarcity, the evidence of plenty and research why this problems were created. What is really the opportunity cost means? Opportunity cost is a cost of next best alternatives from all. CONCLUSION As a conclude, every country has it own resource, we must balanced the factor of production and if one of this factor of production land, capital, labour or enterprenuership is limited is must cause the growth of economic. If dont have land they cant built any company, if capital became limited we cant pay wages to labour, if labour became limited no workers in companies if enterprenuer no new product, so must balanced and protect our factor of production. QUESTION 2 Malaysia, a mixed economy attempts to combine the advantages of Free Enterprise System and the Central Command System. The price mechanism is allowed to operate but in some cases the price mechanism fails or works against public interest. Identify the ways by which the State can intervene to correct the defects. 1.1 INTRODUCTION Production, distribution, and consumption of good and service were a branches of economics in science. What is ecomomy system? Economy system is a planned organization and structure of production. Allocate of economic inputs, distribute of economic outputs and consumption of goods and services in an economy. Economy system are separated into three major economy thats named planned economy, mixed economy and lastly free market economy. There are three different types of organization economy plan that also very tight and some confortable and some of economy plan is very freedom. As I told the three economy system, this is first economy system called planned or command economy, this system is fully controlled by the goverment. There are no arguement or such things in that country because the country is very strict and on the mission and vision to achieve so when the country planned system the mission and vision will achieve more quickly. Free Market Economy is an system based on power of division of labour in which the prices of the goods and services are determined in a free prices system set by supply and demand and the decision taken by individual household and firms and with no goverment intervention. The price also as how much they produce. Mixed ecomony were controlled by partly goverment and partly through the market. 1.2 CONTENT In our Malaysia country is the mixed economic system. Mixed economy reflects the characteristics of both capitalism and socialism. In this mixed economy system there are all real world economies are mixture of the two system. In mixed economy goverment will intervention like some relative prises because the goods and inputs by taxing or subsiding them or by direct price controls. Most mixed economies also can be described as market economies with strong regulatory oversight, in addition to having a variety of government sponsored aspects. Government also must have the rights to control the price of products and services in our Malaysia country. Example of Malaysian government control item are like rice, oil, sugar, petrol, flour and more. SIRIM is a not goverment company but the goverment intervention because they have to know is th product is really good. Mixed economies as an economic ideal are supported by people of various political persuasions. Another example of Malaysian gover ment intervention in the market by pose tax on goods, for example goverment taxed on cigarretes, petrol, alcohol drinks and more. Conclusion As conclusion, Malaysian economic system is mixed economic system. Mixed economy reflects the characteristics of both capitalism and socialism. Malaysian government intervene in the economic in many ways such imposed tax og good, control the price of the product, make sure the price of the product is not high and many more.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Development of the Cardiovascular System in Vertebrate Embryos

The cardiovascular system is the first organ system to become fully functional in the vertebrate embryo and its development occurs in a similar way in all vertebrates. It is derived from angioblastic tissue, which arises from mesenchyme, an aggregation of mesenchymal cells derived from the mesodermal tissue of embryos. The main processes involved in the development of the embryonic cardiovascular system are Vasculogenesis, Angiogenesis, Hematopoiesis, Erythropoiesis and Heart Formation. All processes occur under the influence of stimuli from genes and paracrine factors, oligosaccharides, multifunctional cytokines and enzymes.Vasculogenesis and AngiogenesisTwo distinctive mechanisms, vasculogenesis and angiogenesis implement the formation of the vascular network in the embryo. Embryonic vasculogenesis gives rise to the heart and the primordial vascular plexus within the embryo and its surrounding membranes as the yolk sac circulation. In mammals, it occurs in parallel to hematopoiesis , the formation of blood cells. Vasculogenesis refers to the in situ differentiation and growth of new blood vessels from mesenchymal cells known as angioblasts which aggregate to form isolated angiogenic cell clusters known as blood islands (angiocysts) within the extra-embryonic and intra-embryonic mesoderm. Small cavities appear within these blood islands by the confluence of intercellular clefts.The peripheral cells within these blood islands flatten to form endothelial cells, triggered by the binding of the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) to the first of its two receptors, the VEGF-R2 (Flk1) protein, which is responsible for the differentiation of mesodermal cells into endothelial cells and the subsequent proliferation of the endothelial cells. The core cells give rise to blood cells (haematoblasts). The newly formed endothelial cells arrange themselves around the cavities in the blood islands, forming the primitive endothelium. Cellular vacuoles within the developing endothelial cells coalesce and fuse together without cytoplasmic mixing to forma the blood vessel lumen of the initial endothelial tube.Extracellular matrix deposition by fibroblasts promotes capillary-like tube formation under the influence of the binding of VEGF to its second receptor, VEGF-R1 (Flt1). This is followed by the interaction of the endothelial blood vessel with the supporting mesodermal cells. The Angiopoietin-1 growth factor binds to the Tie2 receptor tyrosine kinase on the cell membrane of the endothelial cells, allowing the blood vessel to recruit the peri-endothelial cells that will surround it as pericytes and the smooth muscle tissue of the blood vessel, thus maintaining the stability of the blood vessels.The growth and multiplication of this primordial vascular plexus occurs through the process of angiogenesis in which new blood vessels arise from pre-existing vascularity. This process requires the combination of two signals, Angiopoietin 2 and VEGF, in order t o promote the loosening of the support cells and the ability of newly exposed endothelial cells to multiply by budding and sprouting into new vessels. Replacement of Ang1 by Ang2 on the Tie2 receptor tyrosine kinase destabilizes the vessel integrity thus facilitating vessel sprouting in response to the VEGF signal. The new endothelial tubule then interacts with the surrounding mesenchymal cells in part as a response to Ang1 which acts on the endothelial cell Tie2 in order to trigger the association of the new tubule with the periendothelial cells.Hematopoiesis and ErythropoiesisBlood develops from endothelial cells (haematoblasts) by a process known as hematopoiesis initially in various parts of the embryonic primitive mesenchyme (yolk sac and allantois), and then in the liver and later on in the spleen, bone marrow and lymph nodes. In embryonic development it is known as primitive hematopoiesis. All blood cells develop from pluripotential stem cells committed to three, two or one h emopoietic differentiation pathways but morphologically undistinguishable. These pluripotent stem cells divide infrequently to generate either more pluripotent stem cells (self-renewal) or committed progenitor cells (colony-–forming cells, CFCs) which are irreversibly determined to produce only one or a few types of blood cells.These colony-forming cells are known as Lymphocyte Forming Colony (LCFC), Megakaryocyte Forming Colony (MCFC), Erythrocyte Forming Colony (ECFC) and Monocyte Granulocyte Forming Colony (MGFC). The progenitor cells are stimulated to proliferate by specific growth factors (colony-stimulating factors, CSFs) but progressively lose their capacity for division and develop into terminally differentiated blood cells which usually live for only a few days or weeks. Erythrocytes (red blood cells) develop by the process of erythropoiesis. In embryos, erythrocytes are nucleated and express embryonic globin chains.Heart FormationIn vertebrate embryos the heart tube , the earliest formed heart structure, arises in the heart field, an embryonic clustering of cells which arises soon after gastrulation. These early stages of development are almost identical among all vertebrates unlike the subsequent septation of the chambers and of the outflow tract which varies between species.The heart field is that region of the precardiac mesoderm that contains the cardiac progenitor cells (endocardial and myocardial precursor cells) and is competent in responding to inductive signals.Precardiac cells from the epiblast lateral to the primitive streak invaginate through the streak and migrate cranio-laterally to form part of the lateral plate. This pattern is maintained in the eventual anteroposterior placement of structures in the heart, with the most cranial cells contributing to the bulbus cordis at the extreme anterior end of the heart and the most caudal cells contributing to the sinoatrial region and the extreme posterior end.As mentioned above, the cell progeny of this region contributes to all layers of the heart tube (myocardium, endocardium and parietal pericardium), as well as to the endothelial cells in the vicinity of the heart. In the lateral plate the cells maintain their anteroposterior position.The lateral plate splits to form two epithelial layers, the somatic mesoderm (which also includes migratory precursors for limb musculature) and the splachnic mesoderm which remains an epithelial sheet and includes the cardiac precursors.The embryo then folds ventrally carrying the splachnic mesoderm with it and bringing it ventral to the foregut which is generated as the lateral folds meet in the ventral midline. The precursors of the endocardium are included in the splachnic mesoderm and begin to form clusters on the foregut side of the epithelial sheet.The heart fields fuse at the midline to form a primary heart tube, the process beginning cranially and proceeding caudally. This tubular heart consists of an outer myocardial man tle and an endocardial inner lining. Between these two concentric epithelial layers an acellular matrix, the cardiac jelly, is found. As the ventricular region of the heart begins to bend to the right (â€Å"cardiac looping†), the cardiac jelly disappears from the future major chambers of the heart (atria and ventricles) and begins to accumulate in the junction between the atria and ventricles (atrioventricular junction, AVJ) and in the developing outflow tract (OFT).This results in the formation of the endocardial cushion tissues in the AVJ which later contribute to the formation of AV (atrioventricular) septal structures and valves, septation of the OFT and formation of the semilunar valves of the aorta and pulmonary artery.The vertebrate heart tube is aligned along the antero-posterior axis. Arterial flow is directed from the ventricle at the anterior end of the heart, through the ventral aortic vessel and branchial arches and subsequently travels posteriorly to the dorsal vessel. Blood flow returns to the heart through the venous system to the atrium lying at the posterior end of the heart chamber.Formation of the Mammalian Embryonic Cardiovascular System1)   Formation of the primitive cardiovascular systema)   Extra-embryonic blood vesselsThe wall of the yolk sac mesenchyme proliferates and forms isolated cell clusters known as blood islands. Peripheral cells within these islands flatten and differentiate into endothelial cells in order to form endothelial tubes. Centrally- located cells develop into primitive blood cells (hematoblasts). Endothelial tubes approach and fuse with each other forming a primitive vascular network. This primitive endothelial network appears in the chorionic membrane and body stalk and connects to the vitelline circulation.b)   Intra-embryonic blood vesselsThe endothelial tube network appears in the intraembryonic mesenchyme to  form an intraembryonic endothelial   tube network. The intraembryonic and extra  e mbryonic tube networks connect to each other forming a diffuse endothelial   tube network which either fuses or disappears to form a primitive cardiovascular  system.2) Development of the HeartThe primitive cardiovascular system consists of the primary heart tube, formed from the fusion of the two bilateral heart fields of the precardiac mesoderm. The primary heart tube gives rise to the endocardium. Blood flows through this primitive heart tube in a cranial position. The mesenchyme surrounding the tube condenses to form the myoepicardial mantle (the future myocardium). Gelatinous connective tissue, the cardiac jelly, separates the myoepicardial mantle from the endothelial heart tube (the future endocardium).A series of constrictions (sulci) divides the heart into sections: the sinus venosus, in which the common cardinal veins, the umbilical veins and the vitelline veins drain; the primitive common atrium; the primitive common ventricle; and the bulbus cordis through which blood flows to the paired dorsal aortae. The paired dorsal aortae arise when the branchial or pharyngeal arches are penetrated by six pairs of arteries called aortic arches. These arteries arise from the aortic sac and terminate in a dorsal aorta. Initially, the paired dorsal aortae run along the whole length of the embryo but soon fuse to form a single dorsal aorta just caudal to the branchial or pharyngeal arches.The arterial and venous ends of the heart tube are fixed by the branchial or pharyngeal arches and the septum transversum, respectively. At this stage the heart is beating and the contractions are of myocardial origin and likened to peristalsis.The primitive atrium loops up behind and above the primitive ventricle and behind and to the left of the bulbus cordis forming the bulboventricular loop.. This looping process brings the primitive areas of the heart into the proper spatial relationship for the further development of the heart.Embryonic venous circulation consists of thr ee pairs of veins: the vitelline veins which drain blood from the yolk sac, the umbilical veins which bring oxygenated blood from the chorion (early placenta), and the common cardinal veins which return blood to the heart from the body of the embryo. Arterial circulation consists of three paired arteries: the intersegmental arteries, which form 30-35 branches of the dorsal aortae and carry blood to the embryo, the vitelline arteries which pass to the yolk sac and later to the primitive gut, and the umbilical arteries which carry oxygen-depleted blood to the placenta.3)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Formation of the Heart ChambersAs mentioned above, during cardiac looping the cardiac jelly disappears fromthe future major chambers of the heart and begins to accumulate in the  Ã‚  Ã‚   atrioventricular junction (AVJ) and developing outflow tract (OFT). This results in the formation of the endocardial cushion tissues in the dorsal and ventral walls of the AVJ. These cushions are invaded by mese nchymal cells, approach each other and fuse, dividing the atrioventricular canal into the right and left atrioventricular canals.The primitive atrium is divided into right and left atria by the formation, modification and fusion of the septum primum and the septum secundum. The septum primum grows towards the fusing endocardial cushions from the roof of the primitive atrium creating a curtainlike septum, the foramen primum between the free edge of the septum and the endocardial cushions.This foramen becomes progressively smaller and eventually disappears when the septum primum fuses with the fused endocardial cushions (atrioventricular septum). The septum secundum grows from the ventrocranial wall of the atrium to gradually overlap the foramen secundum in the septum primum, forming an incomplete separation between the atria in the form of an oval opening, the foramen ovale.The sinus venosus initially opens into the center of the dorsal wall of the primitive atrium and its left and r ight horns are of about the same size. The right horn progressively begins to enlarge in respect to the left horn until it receives all the blood from the head and neck via the superior vena cava and the placenta and caudal regions of the body via the inferior vena cava. The left horn forms the coronary sinus.The wall of the left atrium is formed by the incorporation of the primitive pulmonary vein which develops as an outgrowth of the dorsal atrial wall. As the atrium expands, the primitive pulmonary vein and its branches are gradually incorporated into the wall of the left atrium forming four pulmonary veins with separate openings.The division of the primitive ventricle into the right and left ventricles is initially indicated by a muscular ridge with a concave free edge in the middle of the ventricular floor near its apex. Initially, most of its increase in height results from the dilation of the ventricles on its each side. Later, however there is active proliferation of myoblas ts, forming the thick muscular part of the interventricular septum.At the beginning a crescentic interventricular foramen exists between the free edge of the interventricular septum and the fused endocardial cushions allowing communication between the right and left ventricles. This foramen closes as the result of the fusion of tissue from three sources: 1) the right bulbar ridge, 2) the left bulbar ridge and 3) the endocardial ridges. The membranous part of the interventricular spetum is derived from tissue extension from the right side of the endocardial cushions. It merges with the aorticopulmonary septum and the thick muscular part of the interventricular septum. When the interventricular foramen closes, the pulmonary trunk is in communication with the right ventricle and the aorta communicates with the left ventricle.Active proliferation of mesenchymal cells in the walls of the bulbus cordis gives rise to the formation of the bulbar ridges. Similar ridges form in the truncus ar teriosus and are continuous with the bulbar ridges. Both the bulbar and the truncal ridges have a spiral orientation and result in the formation of a spiral aorticopulmonary septum when the bulbar and truncal ridges fuse. This septum divides the bulbus cordis and the truncus arteriosus into the aorta and pulmonary trunk.Due to the spiral orientation of the aorticopulmonary septum, the pulmonary trunk twists around the aorta. The bulbus cordis is incorporated into the walls of the ventricles. In the left ventricle it forms the walls of the aortic vestibule just inferior to the aortic valve. In the right ventricle it forms the infundibulum or conus arteriosus.Ventricular trabeculation begins in the apical region of the ventricles soon after  cardiac looping. The trabeculation serves primarily as a way of increasing the  oxygenation of the myocardium in the absence of   a coronary circulation. The  compactation of the trabeculae adds to the proportion and thickness of the  co mpact myocardium.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Essay of the Ideology and Social Base of Bharatiya Janata Party Essay

The Bhartiya Janata Party (BJP) was formally launched as an independent political organisation in February 1980, after the split of the Janata Party on the R.S.S issue. Most of east while Jana Sangha members along with a few others, left the Janata Party to form the B.J.P. Thus the B.J.P. is a reincarnation of the Jana Sangha, the militant Hindu nationalist party founded in 1951 by Shyama Prasad Mukherjee. The object of the Jana Sangha was the rebuilding of Bharat as a modern, democratic society in accordance with religious precepts. The party adopted four fundamentals one country, one nation, one culture and a rule of law that would determine its future course of action Nehru described the party as its â€Å"Illegitimate child.† Professor Rasheeduddin Khan has rightly remarked, â€Å"The BJP has prints of continuity with the Jana Sangha, in its discipline and well knit organisational set up and units linkage with the traditional Hindus socio-cultural organisations, the RSS a nd the VTTP.† Support Base: The BJP’s support base is essentially the same as that of the erst while Jana Sangha. It is a party of the urban educated Hindu middle classes professionals, small businessmen and white collar workers. In Gujarat, Maharashtra, Delhi and Rajasthan BJP is the ruling party with charismatic leaders like Suresh Meheta, Gopinath Mundle, Mandas Lai Khurana and Bhairon Singh shekhawat. But BJP’s most impressive performance was in Karnataka, U.P. and Gujarat in 1991 election. In all these states the BJP vote went up by over 20%. Gujarat represents the BJP’s most spectacular showing. Electoral Performance: In 1967, the party gave its full support to the SVD ministry in U.P headed by Charan Singh and it had 98 members in the Vidhan Sabha. In 1977, with 98 of its men in parliament under the Janata banner it received only three cabinet ministership. In 1980 the party backed Jagajivan Ramand in 1983 with their 18 members in the Karnataka legislature the BJP supported R.K. Hegde who was then of a minority The BJP bore V.P. Singh on its shoulders after he formed the Jana Morcha. In 1984 during its worst showing only 2 Lok Sabha seats it still polled 7.4% of the national votes ahead of the Janata’s 6.7 percent and the Lok Dai’s 5.6. Ideology and Programme: The BJP believes in Gandhian socialism. The party says that its socialism is inspired not only bi Gandhi and JP but also by a Deen Dayal Upadhyaya. It stands for positive secularism and clean government while laying emphasis! on the ‘Hindus Idiom’ on its poll manifesto, the party stands for justice for all and appeasement of none. Policy of reservations for the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes apply the same policy to the backward castes broadly in line with the recommendation of the Mandal Commission. The party also favours smaller and stronger states desires to abolish Article 370, favours uniform civil code and would like to establish Human Rights Commission. BJP – RSS Relationship: The Jana sangh has been closely associated with the RSS. The RSS has served as the organizational base for the party. The BJP being its successor, what type of relationship it has with the RSS? The official stand of the BJP and the RSS is that those are two separate organizations working in two different -fields. Besides they do not interfere in each others work. But an over whelming majority of the BJP workers have RSS background. Therefore a large number of people think that the two organizations belong to the one and some family. Even the BJP has reaffirmed its RSS link. It seems this link as vital to its newly emphasized commitment to national unity since it believes that the RSS’s patriotism is unmatched. It is’ in fact proud of its link with RSS. The BJP is now being viewed as an alternative to the century partoes that have so far had a monopoly on power.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Crim Reaction Paper Essays

Crim Reaction Paper Essays Crim Reaction Paper Essay Crim Reaction Paper Essay Reaction paper: Due Wed 14 Nov. 20% Students will be required to submit a 2-3 page (double-spaced) reaction paper to a secondary source criminological article taken from an academic journal. Steps to the paper: 1. Find an academic peer-reviewed journal article that pertains to a subject within criminology that interests you. This could be: developments in policing, courts, corrections, young offenders, Aboriginals, minorities etc. Note that you must find article with an empirical topic, and not just a conceptual review/theoretical piece. 2. Read the paper carefully. . Identify the general theoretical orientation of the author (whether or not it is explicitly stated by the author). Is this author deploying an individualistic or larger structural perspective? Are they more consensual or conflictual in their thinking? 4. How explicit is the author in identifying their theoretical position? 5. Does the author make any policy recommendations, and how do these recommendations relates to th eir theoretical position? 6. Does the author present sufficient evidence in their paper to justify their theoretical position? 7. Based on the analysis in the paper, do you think that the authors theoretical position is the best one for looking at the empirical topic of interest? What kinds of data might they need to make their theoretical position stronger (i. e. , to back up their theoretical point)? 8. Do you think that there is another theoretical tradition that more adequately addresses the empirical topic of interest? If you are going to do research in this area, what kinds of questions would you ask, what kinds of data would you look for, and what kinds of theory would inform your research?

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Thomas Jefferson on Slavery essays

Thomas Jefferson on Slavery essays Thomas Jefferson (born 1743, died 1826) was the third President of the United States. Jefferson expressed the convictions in the minds and hearts of the American people (Bernstein 205). He said that the main objects of all science are the freedom and happiness of man (Jefferson Digital Archive). Thomas Jefferson, the author of the Declaration of Independence, Who championed rights and liberation, did not implement his beliefs, especially with his practice of slavery. Between May 17 and June 28, 1776, Jefferson wrote the constitution for Virginia and The Declaration of Independence, his two most famous political documents (Bernstein 250). Jefferson served as a member of the Committee to draft the Declaration of Independence (History Channel Online). The Declaration of Independence, written in 1776, remains Jeffersons best known work. It set forth the position of the American people and their desire to govern themselves. He believed in the natural rights of all people: We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of happiness (Bernstein 207). His original draft of the Declaration of Independence included strong language opposing the transatlantic slave trade. Foreign affairs dominated his day-to-day attentions while president, often pushing him toward Federalist policies that contrasted with his political philosophy (Brodie 209). Jefferson also opposed slavery. How could slavery exist in a land where all men are created equal? Jefferson felt that this abomination (slavery) must come to an end. And there is a superior bench in heaven for those who hasten the end of slavery (Jefferson Digital Archive). He believed that All men are born free (Brodie 105) and as a young politician he argued for the prohib...

Sunday, November 3, 2019

A Journal opinion article Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

A Journal opinion article - Essay Example The first three months of the year experienced decline in spending by domestic household in the United States as reported by the commerce department. The decline in consumption dropped from the estimated 3.6 percent to 2.6percent as the CNBC reported. The commerce department reported massive decline spending in crucial sectors, notably the service sector based on the report by CNBC, consumers decreased their spending in legal services, health care and more so in personal care. One of the major causes of the consumption decline could have been the new taxation law. The increase in the social security tax at the beginning of the year could have limited the extent to which households spend within the first quarter. The tax increase lowered directly the amount of income that households would take home at end of the day. After taxation, consumers were left with only meager income; these consumers choose to concentrate on basic commodities only (Morrissey 1). As opposed to earlier projecti ons that had showed increase in the amount export for first quarter, the latest report indicated otherwise. The department of commence statistics indicated that export decreased indeed to 1.1percent while imports also declined to 0.4 percent. The decrease in export translated to limited foreign currency at the disposal of the government for the country to trade with other countries. Consequently, the fall in imports resulted to decrease in foreign revenue. Both reductions in export and import negative effects on the country’s gross domestic product and contributed to the drop in the figure that had been projected for the first quarter to be 2.4percent (Morrissey 1). Amid concerns that the government was cutting its spending, consumers could have become more reserved in their spending. Government spending cut could lead to increase in the prices of commodities that had been earlier subsidized. A decrease in government’s spending could also result to households paying fo r basic services that were being catered for by the state prior to cut in spending. Vis a Vis the speculation of the government cutting its spending motivated a decline in consumption by consumers that further led to drop in the GDP of the first quarter. However, according to the wall street journal, the cut in governments spending which took effect in first month of the first quarter led to direct deduction of 0.9 percent off the growth rate (BBC 1). Due to economical globalization of the world, there existed unprecedented events all over the world that were bound to destabilize the projected GDP by department of commerce. Economic instability in states such as china and European countries could have contributed to gravitation of the united states GDP to 1.8 percent. With globalization, no single economy can exist in solitary in the 21st century. Hence, through globalization, the myriad of macroeconomics factors derailing the Chinese economy and euro zone states such as Greece adve rsely influenced the bilateral trade between these countries. The decrease in the annual economic growth of china triggered the decline in trade between the two countries. On the other hand, the worsening conditions of euro zone states such as Greece continued to shift trade further away from the European countries causing down surge in the amount of investments by Americans in the oversees (BBC 1). Though the department of com

Friday, November 1, 2019

Human Resources Internal & External Recruiting advantages Essay

Human Resources Internal & External Recruiting advantages - Essay Example The internal recruitment method and the external recruitment method. These two methods can be defined as follows. Internal Recruitment is the process of finding potential internal candidates and encouraging them to apply for and be willing to accept organizational job openings. This can be done by Job posting which means information about a job vacancy is placed in conspicuous places in an organization, such as bulletin boards or newsletters. External Recruitment on the other hand is the process of finding potential external candidates and encouraging them to apply for and be willing to accept the organizational job openings. This can be done by realistic job preview which is a technique used during the recruitment process in which the job candidate is presented with a balanced view of both the positive and negative aspects of the job (Julie Andrew Marc Kline Mike Bohl, Christine Stone Roland Gehweiler, 12). Internal recruitment as we said is the recruitment of employees from within the organization, and this certainly has positive and negative effects on the organization. Recruitment effects the organization as a whole, but over here we will discuss only its effects on workplace, labor force and wages. Starting off with the advantages that recruitment provides to the work place. The employee is oriented to the organization. He knows of the organization structure, its policies and regulation, the working environment as well as the people working with him. He is also familiar with the culture that exists. This overall saves the time of the management and directly hands over the new responsibilities as in other terms the employee is actually promoted from his current job. Since the management has already worked with him they have the reliable information required. They know of the employees' strengths and weaknesses and are aware of how to control the new status given. Then comes a very important factor which is the recruitment cost being very low. There is no need to advertise for the job available, as the required skills already exist within the organization. The internal recruitment provides a career structure. It gives an incentive to the current employees to work efficiently and get promoted. This provides an additional scope for the current ones. Lets have a look at the disadvantages that the internal recruitment's work place has. One drawback of extensive internal recruiting is the reduced likelihood of innovation and new perspectives. A lack of new employees from the outside leads to a lack of new ideas and approaches. A use of the internal pool for the consideration of vacant positions can lead to conflicts. The organization has to ensure and continuously check its balance of a diverse workforce. This has to relate to the organization's legal, political and geographical environment. Internal recruiting demands a higher degree of employee training. In order to develop the skills needed to train the current workforce in new processes and technologies, the organization has to provide a more expensive training program. It limits the number of candidates, as not everyone within the organization is capable of taking over the vacant job. It may cause jealousy amongst the employees as not everyone can be promoted. The managers may resent loss of staff to other departments as its pretty logical that the one being promoted was a good employee and therefore the place he would be

Wednesday, October 30, 2019

How can tax cuts help revive the economy Explain Essay - 2

How can tax cuts help revive the economy Explain - Essay Example The effect of tax cuts on the macro economy will however depend on the way the taxpayers will use their additional income and adjustment of government to its low income. This is referred to as fiscal policy which contrasts the macroeconomic policy which attempts to control interest rates as well as supply of money in stabilizing the economy. Fiscal policy uses taxation and government expenditure as its two instruments. Changes in taxation levels and government spending impacts on aggregate demand and economic activity level in the economy. It also impacts on pattern of allocation of resources and income distribution. Fiscal policy is used by government to influence economic aggregate demand in the need to achieve price stability, economic growth and full employment. According to Kogan, (2003), tax cuts stimulate the economy together with intervention of interest rates and deficit spending. Economic stimulation can only be realized if the government reduces its expenditure and the tax payers increase their expenditure especially on local commodities. The free market economy advocates argue that economic welfare of people will be improved since people are rational in what they want than the government. The suppliers of economy advocate for tax cuts because they stimulate the economy if the government expenditure is maintained and tax payers spend more of their income on locally produced commodities. This stimulates the economic growth but only on condition that it is properly maintained, otherwise it leads to economic inflation. If the expected revenue increase in the long term is not realized, the government may be left with huge debts to pay and hence a dangerous budgetary crisis. In order that the government determines that the tax cut is or is not worth to the economy, the tax multiplier is used, which measures aggregate production changes as a result of

Monday, October 28, 2019

Compare the portrayal of Clytaemnestra in both Aeschylus Essay Example for Free

Compare the portrayal of Clytaemnestra in both Aeschylus Essay Compare the portrayal of Clytaemnestra in both Aeschylus Agamemnon and Euripides Electra. Which portrayal do you think is more effective and why?  The character of Clytaemnestra is portrayed very differently in both Aeschylus Agamemnon and Euripides Electra. In Agamemnon, we see a very strong female ruler, who is completely absorbed by her passion for vengeance, whereas the figure in Electra is far more maternal, and shows a concern for her family and reputation, which was not apparent in Aeschylus play. This subdued version of Clytaemnestra shows a stark contrast to the fierce and dominant character in Agamemnon, however both characters remain fascinating for different reasons. The Clytaemnestra of Agamemnon seems to be fearless of retribution, with an infallible belief in her own righteousness; I have no fear that his avengers tread shall shake this house. In Electra, however, we see a very different character, humbled over the years, and afraid of Orestes, Im terrifiedthey say he is full of anger for his fathers death. These different reactions to the same topic emphasise how greatly the character of Clytaemnestra differs in each play, from the meek and subdued housewife of Electra, to the self-assured and confident murderess of Agamemnon. One explanation for the changes in character of Clytaemnestra in these plays is the timescale in which they are set. The events in Electra happen several years after those in Agamemnon, and the more mature and calmer Clytaemnestra we see portrayed in Euripides play could be due to the effect of time on her, and the fact that she has had several years in which to reflect upon her actions and realise the full extent of the crimes that she committed against her husband. In Electra, Clytaemnestra states how bitterly I regret it now with regards to the murder she has committed, showing that she has indeed been thinking about the events of the past and repents her actions. This Clytaemnestra is very subdued in comparison to the character portrayed by Aeschylus, and although we can see some evidence of the passion and raw energy that made the character so fascinating in Agamemnon, for instance when she attempts to justify her murder of Agamemnon to her daughter; why should he not die? it is clear in Electra that Clytaemnestra is to take second stage to her daughter in regards to unhindered fury and a lust for vengeance. This older, wiser Clytaemnestra still remains crucial to the plot, but not as a central character, and is merely a shadow of her former self, the confident, powerful creature who dictated the action of Aeschylus play. The style of the two playwrights is a notable difference in the two plays, and the representation of Clytaemnestra varies greatly due to this. Euripides, the more modern o the two tragedists, tended to use sophistic arguments to confound the audiences expectations of a character. With Clytaemnestra, for instance, he decided to move away from her monstrous image the audience would have expected after plays such as Agamemnon, and instead portrayed her as a gentler, maternal figure. This technique was enhanced by the fact that we do not see Clytaemnestra until the second half of the play; only hear about her from Electra. The image portrayed by this character is similar to the one portrayed in Agamemnon, so much so as the audience can wonder whether Euripides is intentionally parodying this version of events, as he had done earlier in the play with the recognition scene, a clear parody of The Libation Bearers. Aeschylus, a far more traditional playwright, portrays Clytaemnestra in her c lassic style, as the murderess of her own husband. This portrayal is, however, somewhat sympathetic towards Clytaemnestra, and we can feel some compassion towards her, although this does not excuse her actions. Aeschylus gave the audience a clear moral standpoint in his tragedies, and they are aware through both the use of the chorus, and the play itself, whose side to be on, from a moral perspective. Euripides on the other hand, tended to be deliberately ambiguous, and his treatment of Clytaemnestra is typical of this. The two sides of the woman that are exposed in this play; the ruthless killer of Agamemnon, as seen through the eyes of Electra, and the reformed wife of Aegisthus, as is later portrayed. This use of sophistic techniques in order to confound the audiences expectations is common in the plays of Euripides, and is particularly effective in this portrayal of such a fascinating woman. The fact that Clytaemnestra is the central character in Agamemnon yet only plays a small part in Euripides Electra also accounts for several differences in her character. The Clytaemnestra in Agamemnon appears almost constantly throughout the play, and through this we can see the development of her character from the strong wife looking after her husbands estate whilst he is at war: Our king and leader absentour duty pays his due observance to his wife, to the violent mistress who murders her husband without remorse at the end of the play: caught by the ruthless falsehood of a wife. Aeschylus is able to develop his character over a far greater stretch of time than Euripides as, in Electra, Clytaemnestra only appears in one scene. The fact that Clytaemnestra is the main protagonist in Agamemnon allows us to examine her character to a far greater extent, enabling us to see how obsessed she has become with the idea of vengeance, and the murder of her husband: His death the work of my right hand, whose craftsmanship Justice acknowledges. In Electra, the character of Clytaemnestra is not given as much time to develop, and we have to make assumptions on her based on the short dialogue between her and Electra.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

What is the role of Owen in Translations? :: English Literature

What is the role of Owen in Translations? One of the first things Owen says on returning to Baile Beg is â€Å"I can’t believe it. I come back after six years and everything’s just as it was! Nothing’s changed!† It is really Owen who has changed into a different person after his time away from Baile Beg. His primary role in the play is that of a translator for the visiting English, but within his role of translator he is also vital to the play as his presence allows relationships between the characters and the plot to develop. Owen provides many contrasting point of views due to the fact that he is working for the English but also a Baile Beg resident. He is a representative of the more forward - thinking Irish, such as himself and Maire. He and Maire realise that for the natural progression of the Irish society they need to work with the English and not against them. Owen has passed the cultural divide that exists between the Irish and English because he can communicate with them and understand their point of view. He has also progressed as an individual through knowledge and understanding. This could be Friel’s way of saying that progress can only come after understanding. Manus can also speak English but chooses not to, this shows the importance of communication to progression. He prefers to use a language, which is becoming less widely used, this may be a symbol of the backwardness of his homeland. The most significant enemy in the re-naming of the places is that the Irish believe it to be a removal of their heritage and tradition, as Manus says, â€Å"What’s incorrect about the place names we have here?† Owens’s view on the idea of preservation of tradition is very questionable. For example when he and Yolland are discussing what to call Tobair Vree he asks, â€Å"do we keep piety with a man long dead, long forgotten, his name eroded beyond recognition, whose trivial little story nobody else in the parish remembers?† Here Owen points to the Irish people’s almost instinctive fear of change. He thinks that tradition is silly and just an excuse to hide from progression. Owen is the neutral and less passionate character in the play; therefore the audience find it easier to relate with Owen. In fact it is possible to call Owen the chief narrator. Although Owen is the translator in the play he acts as more of a barrier of understanding because when translating for Yolland and Lancey he omits details and changes meanings for words. A good example for this would be when he changes Maire’s sentence of â€Å"Has he

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Business Plan for Toy Shop

BUSIENSS PLAN FOR TOY SHOP BUSINESS PLAN KIDZONE TOY STORE Submitted by: Ajit Mangarulkar Vishwanath Patil Piyush Borde Kunal Dalal Yogendra Bhosale Rahul Tayade Overview of the Industry INTRODUCTION The toy industry mainly concentrated in and around the metropolitan cities of New Delhi and Mumbai in India, is characterized by small-scale establishments. Of late, the toy industry has been internationalized. The application of new materials and technologies have added value to the variety of the toys. Today, the use of toys is unlimited.They are used for decorations by adults and for education & play by children. Toys are also being used for entertainment and child development. Plastic toys, along with soft toys (mainly dolls) and board games, make up about 80% of the Indian market in value terms. The change that is discernible is the decline in Importance of board games (other than puzzles), which involve play by a group of children. Those in the trade argue that, with smaller family size today and the growing incidence of both parents working, there is little scope for board games, which families used to traditionally play together.The emphasis these days is much more on toys, with which a child can play on his/her own. Market Dynamics of the Indian Toy Trade The Indian toy market exhibits some of the characteristics common to any toy market while others have uniquely the Indian character. Individual toys have a short life cycle. There is a constant need for novelty. Consumer tastes change rapidly. Resurrection of old toys does not work – a new content has to be added or altered. These rules, in general, apply to most toy markets internationally. In addition, the Indian market has its own angularities.Toy sales in India have well defined seasonal patterns coinciding with the festival season. Generally, the time period from July to November is the high season with temporary surges in some States in December & March. Toy selling in India often involves se lling to 3 individuals simultaneously, namely the child, who will use the toy, the mother, who is concerned with safety, space to play, etc. and the father who controls the purse strings. The market is also highly price sensitive. This trend has been reinforced by the entry of large-scale imports of cheap and novel toys from China.These have mostly been unbranded, of low priced and indifferent quality toys. The past decade has seen the Indian toy industry making quick strides in terms of production and exports. At present, India produces a wide range of toys, namely plastic and mechanical activity toys, plastic and soft dolls, stuffed toys, board games, puzzles, educational games and toys, metal toys, electronic toys and games. It is estimated that the toy production in India is around INR 5. 50 billion in the organized sector and INR 12. 50 billion in the unorganized sector with nearly 20% annual average growth rate.There are more than 3000 units in the small-scale sector including large number of units in the cottage sector. Some large/MNCs’ toy units like the Mattel, Lego and Funskool are also present in India. With international quality toys available in India now, the average spending on toys has increased substantially and this process is supported by an increase in disposable income at the customer end. Introduction â€Å"To every child, presenting a toy creates a special attachment between the two. † We intend to satisfy the needs of the children mainly aged below 10yrs. y having an â€Å"KIDZONE† as a part of organized retail, catering to almost all the trifling requirements of kids. Service will be one of our main focus areas wherein we intend to have a â€Å"play n feel the toys† zone attracting the kids to enjoy with toys. This facility will give a real feeling of amusement to children, hence attracting the kids and parents towards it. Thereafter we will also provide a babysitting facility for parents shopping throughout the mall and in the meantime the trifling needs of babies will be taken care of.Secondly, we will focus on disintermediation of procurement channel by directly sourcing the finished products from the toy manufacturers mainly from China & other manufacturers from India. Most importantly we are looking forward to revolutionize the toy industry by having merged quality with fun wherein all the safety issues would be taken care ensuring the source of playfulness not becoming a hysterical item. Above all our long term goal is to make our retail outlets as a brand name well recognized in toy industry and increase the organized retail market share in toys segment.Management Team Vishwanath Patil – Ajit Mangarulkar – Piyush Borde – Yogendra Bhosale – Kunal Dalal – Marketing Plan SWOT Analysis Strengths: Our business would impart touch & feel factor to the child We would impart child caring facility in our store where the parents can leave their child and go for shopping which will in turn lead to sales by having child for more hours in shops & can be addicted or fascinated to any of the toy Large & Growing Population (Market Size data to found out) – Age group between 0-8 years Maximum Loyalty towards shopDemonstration Effect Higher Margins due to large imports from China, Hong Kong & other countries Wide range of products to choose Fewer bargains for the products Increase in disposable income of middle class Weakness Emotional attachment towards toy which leads to non repetitive buying Price sensitivity market Safety Issue in terms of lead contain, sharpness of toys etc Individual toy have shorter life cycle & consumer taste changes rapidly Opportunity Untapped organized sector which consists of only 10% of total toy industry. Better support from governmentDemand for Educational toy in the market Threats Due to large expansion of Mall Culture, there is increase in competition from the players Big Fish with deep pockets will able to sell products at competitive price (Entry of global brands) Marketing Mix The marketing mix is often summarized as the four P’s – Product, Price, Place and Promotion. Product The type of product that would be placed in the store will be dependent on the age group. During the initial period the store would cater to age group of from the day child is born to 8 years.The later as the store expands and capital is generated the store would cater to toys catering to people with age more than 8 years and toys for adult. The product that will be defined within age group is as follows 0-24 months: Teethers, squeaks, Tomy, balls, soft toys, baby education toys and others. Photos of some of products are given below. 2 years to 4 years: puzzles, cars, Helicopters Photos of some of products are shown below 4years to 6 years: Magic tricks, electronic cars and helicopters, electronic gadgets and toys of film stars and other famous personality, famous cartoon character, Barbie & others.Photos of some of products are shown below: 6years to 8 years: Tricycles, Bicycles, and other ride on toys. Apart from that the musical toys and electrical operated toys will also be placed in the shelves 8 years to 10 years: Board room games, chess and other family games would be the major attraction The stuffed toys and Plush toys would be all time major attraction towards the customers. The above mentioned is only a part of whole list of offerings offered by the store. The main unique selling proposition would be the Indian touch in toys.We will also try to procure the toys of famous personalities –all time legends like Shahrukh Khan from film industry, Dhirubhai Ambani from business,  Narayan Karthikeyan from F1 racing like all the famous personalities in their respective fields will be incorporated as toys. The toys projected in any of Bollywood and Hollywood industry will also be major attraction for the customers. We will try to innovate and help suppliers to also make customized product if possible and thereby increasing the revenues.The key to business will be continuous innovation in all product ranges. Price: The price of the product sell in the shop will depend on the sourcing and also the total cost of procurement. In the initial years of opening of shop we will not be having competitive pricing but the prices would be at par with other competitors in the market. After years of experience in the business and due to strong hold with the suppliers, we will be having a bargaining power with the suppliers and will try to sell product at lower prices compared to competitor.We will be having Lowest Prices in the Town in one of product everyday to attract as many customers as possible. Moreover the product would be selling at par with our costing, so we won’t be able to generate from the product sold at lowest prices. The whole list of prices with the name of the product is attached in the annexure 8. Place: The majority of the product would be procured from China and also some of the product would be procured from India itself. The main source from India would be Chennai, Noida and Mumbai. The sourcing from China would be in terms of imports via sea route.The cost of procuring of the product is already been included in the financials. The time for procurement of goods would be taking near around 28 days from the day of placing of order from China and the procurement from Chennai or Noida will take maximum four days and from Mumbai it would take one day lead time. The toys would be stock in the store itself; there won’t be any special storage place or another location of the toys. The toys would be readily available to the customers on demand if stock is available. Promotion:The less effort would be required in terms of promotion as the store will be located in Thane East But still promotion will be required to create a buzz in the city which would be carried out be two means. 1) Print Ads in local newspaper. As maximum people in Maharashtra are habituated of reading of local newspaper, so the ads would be given in local newspaper on repetitive basis. The ads will also be given in other non local newspaper but frequency of ads would differ in both the cases. 2) Advertisement would be carried out in radio stations. Continuous announcement would be given in all leading radio stations like Radio Mirchi and Big FM. ) Distributions of pamphlets would also be one of the marketing strategies for carrying out promotion. As in the initial period it is not possible to be present in all the malls, so distribution of pamphlets in all the malls will be carried out on weekly basis. 4) All this promotion will in turn lead to Word of mouth marketing 5) In later stages of business the viral marketing will also be carried out. OPERATION PLAN Location The location selected for opening an outlet is THANE (Maharashtra). Thane is the largest city in the state of Maharashtra and the The city is witn essing a major construction boom and population increase.A rising centre of education, information technology and scientific industries, Thane remains the cultural and commercial heart of Maharashtra, and much of western India. The main reason behind selection of this city is the city is developing stage & we witness tremendous opportunity in the coming years. The real estate boom will be going to come in the city so we don’t won’t to miss the opportunity to be there within couple of years. The reason for selection of the city is its proximity to MUMBAI. The proximity to the city will help in reducing the transportation cost and increasing overall efficiency and savings in operations.Type of Building The location of the shop would be in the shop in Thane (East). Amount of Space The amount of space needed would be around 2000 sq feet of area which would be more or less compared to any retail chains. The amount of space needed would be targeted in malls in the basement n ear around the entry of Reliance and Big Bazaar shops. We targeted the basement due to its cost effectiveness. The shop would be lease for 5 year period for the initial purpose and then if needed would be bought out. The general lease rental of the area in Thane (East) is around Rs. 30000 per month. Other DetailsThe business hours of the shop would last from 10am to 10pm as major. We see the timings to be getting extended at weekends. Moreover the timing would be subjected to the change. Lead Time The main source of supplier would be from the Shantou in China and from Shanghai in China. The other supplier from India would be the Hanung toys in Noida, Mattel Inc. in Chennai and also the Funskool India Ltd in Chennai. The cost of transport of freight from China to India ranges from 428 USD to 600 USD depending on the date of ordering. The other cost of transportation from Mumbai to Thane would be around 2000 INR.The cost of procurement of consignment from Mumbai to Thane would be is 3 000INR and from Delhi/Noida it is around 8000 INR. So the lead time if calculated to import from toys from China would be around one month and from procurement from India only it would take around one week from farthest place i. e. Chennai in India for procurement of toys. Sales Estimation Due to prime location of the shop in the malls we expect the sales to be reaching high in the weekends and also in the festivals. This figure comes from the fact that out of 15000 people visiting Thane East daily on an average, around 82% are parents and remaining are youth.So out of 82% of total population we average that around 35% of parents would be with child who comes for the shopping. As mentioned that we shall be a unique adventure in the shop as a playing area specially allotted for the kids to play with the toys which ever they want out of majority of samples placed in playing area. The other advantage is that the child would be taken care of specially trained employees and all this pack age would come for free. We expect the shopping time taken by any parents would be around 1 hour.So we provide facility for parents to leave their child to play in the shop and if they want they can buy the toy. We rely on the fact provided by the doctors that one hour is enough for a child up to 6 years to get addicted with the toy. Hence as a child gets addicted to play with the toy, they would force parents for purchase of same toy. We only expect 75 customers to get converted out of minimum 1500 people visiting per hour (which is around just 5% of total customers visited in the mall. ) The other occasion for increase in the sales would be the festivals and also the Valentine’s Day for the youth.The shop target customer is up to 14 years but due to presence of Splush toys and also teddies and fur toys which stand attraction for the youth, so we expect the sales to increase in valentine day. Personnel In order to manage the day to day operations we along with three partners have decided to keep the following personnel for smooth operations. In order to reduce our fixed expenses we have restricted ourselves to six employees in the initial three months of our operations. However with time and requirement we shall keep increasing the strength. Number of employees: * Store Facilitators-02 Store Manager-01 * Housekeeper-01 Financial Details Projected start up cost Projected start up cost| | Security Deposits Monthly RentSalary to StaffPurchase of ToysFurniture and StationaryReserved| 100000 30000 20000250000 50000 50000| Total Start Up Cost| 500000| Sources of Fund 50% fund from Partners50 % fund from State Bank of India| 250000250000| Total Fund Raised| 500000| Projected Balance Sheet Liabilities| Rs. | Assets| Rs. | Capital| 500000| Furniture ComputerStockCash DepositeCurrent assets| 50000 20000250000 50000100000 30000| Total | 500000| Total| 500000|

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Unit Assignment

Then, the paper will go into further detail about problems and, dilemmas, that accompanied the old traditional classification. As a consequence of this state of affairs, the psychological community all agreed upon one matter. In short, it's a fact of necessity, that the old terms, â€Å"projective† and â€Å"objective must be parted with. † Finally, substitute terms are needed to be designated as suitable the new placements, and, the community is all in agreement to simply refer to assessment tasks by their specific name. Unit 8 Assignment Historical use of the Terms Objective and ProjectiveMore than 10 years ago, psychologists have been labeling personality tests by dividing them into two separate types either the objective method or the projective method. Many people have seen them in documents, in the same exact way. Those two words continue to be seen in textbooks, in all types of articles, in graduate programs, and, generally all over the place. Historically, many psychologists have become used to utilizing these terms without fully realizing that they do not begin to define, the psychological personality assessment tests that, they are purported to identify. The terms â€Å"objective† ND â€Å"projective† are not only scientifically inaccurate, but problematic from a professional standpoint as well† (Bernstein, 2007, p. 202). Because, science is trying to keep up with today's times they are trying to eliminate those two terms, objective and projective from the lexicon. â€Å"In the interests Of advancing the science of personality assessment, we believe it is time to end this historical practice and retire these terms from our formal lexicon and general discourse describing the methods of personality assessment† (Meyer & Kurt, 2006, p. 223). The old descriptions do not accurately describe a human rationality.Historically, the methods that were used for describing personality assessment tests have always been divide d into two separate parts. The one section has been objective and the other section has always been projective. These words are ambiguous because they have several possible meanings and they are difficult to comprehend, distinguish or classify a certain type personality in these tests. It's like painting a picture with two different colors and trying to classify it, with only two colors. The results of this show that the terms are so unclear, and they have multiple meanings.Unfortunately, the terms objective and projective carry multiple, often unclear, meanings, including some connotations that are very misleading when applied to personality assessment instruments and methods† (Meyer & Kurt, 2006, p. 223). It is essential not to utilize these words as umbrella words because they do not cover everything they are purported to. â€Å"The old and familiar terminology of objective and projective personality tests has misleading connotations that will not Serve the field well as W e seek to have a more differentiated understanding of assessment methods† (Meyer & Kurt, 006, p. 24). Some other reasonable alternatives need to be agreed upon and utilized. These unsuitable words cannot be continued because they are misleading in terminology. â€Å"The unsuitable and primitive nature of the term projective is revealed when trying to arrive. It in umbrella label to characterize tasks as diverse as drawing one's family, telling stories in response to pictures, and stating what an ink blot looks like† (Meyer & Kurt, 2006, p. 224).Problems with Traditional Classification There cannot continue to be a broad-based paintbrush that is applied and entities to label all psychometric personality assessment tests. â€Å"Tests that are not so categorized will tend to be viewed less positively, regardless of psychometric data, because they are, after all, not objective† (Meyer & Kurt, 2006, p. 223). Because of the past, there is too much negativity surroundin g the term, projective. The terminology both, â€Å"objective† and â€Å"projective† are not necessarily what they seem. The term â€Å"objective† is a smokescreen for measures that can be just as subjective as anything else and the term â€Å"projective† is derived from untenable theoretical concepts that have anointed to create confusion in the field for a long time† (Chilliness, 2007, p. 197). Some other substantial problem is when the effects of a test cannot be duplicated by the same test more than one time. â€Å"If assessment psychologists did not derive overarching frameworks and terminologies for classifying psychological tests, those who use, study, or critique these tests would do it anyway.In this respect, it is better that an organizing framework be made explicit (and the logic underlying the framework spelled out in detail) than that multiple contrasting framework and labels emerge in isolation mongo different segments of the psycholo gical community† (Bernstein, 2007, p. 205). The volume of the dilemmas above have all been a culmination of psychologists and psychiatrists in this community and their opinions about the problems with traditional classification.