Saturday, August 31, 2019

Culture War? The Myth of a Polarized America

In Culture War? The Myth of a Polarized America,1 Morris Fiorina takes aim at the contention that there is a culture war in America, that our society is badly divided and polarized so that we are rapidly falling into two competing camps ready to do battle with one another. It is a bold argument.The idea that a culture war is raging in America is a staple of certain media outlets, especially AM talk radio, where the likes of Michael Savage, Bill O’Reilly, and Rush Limbaugh on the right, and Thom Hartman, Randi Rhodes, and Al Franken of left-leaning Air America constantly sound alarms, crying that whichever barbarians they dread are about to storm the temple. Against this popular belief, Morris Fiorina has impressive credentials: he taught at for ten years at CalTech, for sixteen years at Harvard, and he is now a senior fellow at the Hoover Institute and holds an endowed chair in political science at Stanford University.Using sophisticated sampling data, Fiorina shows that the A merican public holds a range of diverse opinions, but finds that instead of being increasingly polarized, the American public has generally been moving to the center of the political spectrum on many issues. Consider an issue which he admits is a â€Å"hot button† item: homosexuality. Fiorina finds that the American public has gradually but steadily become more accepting of homosexuals over the past 30 years.True enough, the public does not accept homosexual marriage, nor did they accept opening the military to gays, but these are not the entire question of homosexuality. On the issue of being willing to accept homosexuals in general, the public attitude has shown increasing moderation. To establish this, Fiorina considers polls in which the sample group was asked to rate homosexuals on a â€Å"thermometer†scale, in which 100 is total acceptance, and 0 is total rejection. In 1984, homosexuals earned a â€Å"0†³ score from 30 percent of Americans.By 2000, the perc entage of â€Å"0†³ scores has dropped to just 10 percent, and the overall acceptance rating for homosexuals has risen from 30 percent to 49 percent. (84) While these ratings do not show that homosexuals have managed to escape the stigma under which they have been compelled to live, they show that the shocking divide in which the issue is often portrayed does not exist. Similarly, the abortion issue, long considered the most divisive of social issues, is decidedly less divisive than it is pictured in popular media.A clear majority of Americans now support the basic decision in Roe v. Wade, the 1973 Supreme Court abortion case. More than 65 percent of Americans support a strong right to choose. (54) Further, attitudes as to when abortion should be allowed are virtually unchanged since 1973. As of 1999, the last year for which Fiorina has data, 88 percent of Americans believe that abortion should be allowed if the life or health of the pregnant woman was seriously endangered. (5 5) In 1973, the number was 87 percent.If, like Fiorina, we accept the norm that a change of four percent or less in a survey of this type is not statistically significant, then the only factor about which the surveys have asked which has seen a statistically significant change is the right to a woman to have an abortion based on a claim that she has an income so low that she cannot afford another child. Even in this situation, some 40 percent of the general population would allow the abortion. (55) The change in attitudes, such as it is, is in the percentage of Americans who believe that all abortion is murder.While this saw a slight rebound in the late 1990s, it has fallen from 22 percent in 1973 to 18 percent, and since Roe, it has never been above 25 percent. (71) Another remarkable finding that Fiorina uncovered is that men and women have virtually identical attitudes on abortion, even though they differ markedly in their views on other issues. (71-72) The percentage of men and women who believe that abortion should be legal under all circumstances has varied between 21 and 36 percent for women, and between 20 and 30 percent for men, with the difference between sexes never being more than six percent.The percentage of men and women believing that abortion should be illegal under all circumstances has run between 15 and 23 percent for women and between 13 and 21 percent for men, with never more than a difference of four percent. (71) By contrast on other issues, the difference between men’s and women’s attitude is far more marked. Responding to the suggestion that all handguns except those carried by police or other persons in authority should be illegal, only 28 percent of men agree; 48 percent of women agree.Regarding the â€Å"caning† of an American teenage arrested in Singapore for acts of vandalism, 61 percent of men approved of the punishment; only 39 percent of women approved. While 43 percent of men consider themselves conservat ive, only 29 percent of women do. (72) In short, while abortion does not appear to be as divisive an issue as it is portrayed, there are other issues on which there is division. Fiorina presents a sweeping array of data, all of which shows far less division than is generally assume to exist.This raises a natural question: if there are fewer deep divisions than Americans believe, why do Americans believe that there are such division? Fiorina points to several sources, including political parties, media, and pundits. Media and pundits want to portray conflict, because conflict sells. (115-23) As the quip goes, â€Å"If it bleeds, it leads. † To reach his conclusions, Fiorina has to delve into sophisticated statistical models.The reader wishing to follow his argument in detail faces a daunting task, because Fiorina uses three dimensional statistical models ass he works through assumptions about voter and candidate behavior. (118-24) In the end, Fiorina argues that it is not the general populace that is divided, but the elites, the people who are active in party work. (125-31) In their turn, the elites are the most accessible to and the most accessing of the media and the pundits. (141-42) Party elite organizations tend to be strongly self-selecting.Only a true believer among Republicans can rise far through the Republican party organization; only a true believing Democrat gets to the top of the Democratic party. Once in the elite, these people tend to demand equal zeal from anyone else wanting admission, and to select people with the same ideals to join the elites. The result is set of self-perpetuating cadres of zealots, who believe, or at least would like to believe that they stand on the ramparts and fight for the Lord. In Fiorina convincing? He would probably find a certain irony in the response: maybe.Any serious reader must give pause. There is comfort in the idea is that we are not becoming constantly more polarized. Still we are conditioned to beli eve we are polarized. That idea appears so often that a refutation is hard to accept. But anyone who reads this book will probably ponder if Fiorina is right or not. He would probably approve of that response. AUTHORITY CITED: Fiorina, Morris, with Samuel Abrams and Jeremy Pope. Culture War? The Myth of a Polarized Amierca. New York, New York: Pearson/Longman, 2005.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Media Formulation

Medium formulation is an essential stage in the design of fermentation process. Most fermentation media require liquid media, although some solid-substrate fermentations are also operated. Fermentation media must satisfy all the nutritional requirements of the microorganisms and fulfill the technical objectives of the process. There are several stages where media are required in a fermentation process; inoculum (starter culture), propagation steps, pilot-scale fermentations and the main production fermentations.According to Cruger W and Cruger A (1990); on a large scale, the sources of nutrients should be selected to create a medium which should meet as many as many possible of the following criteria: i. It should produce the maximum yield of product or biomass per gm of substrate used. ii. It should produce maximum concentration of product or biomass. iii. It should permit the maximum rate of product formation. iv. There should be the minimum yield of undesired products. v. It shoul d be of a consistent quality and be readily available throughout the year. vi.It should cause minimal problems during media preparation and sterilization. vii. It should cause minimal problems in other aspects of the production process particularly aeration and agitation, extraction, purification and waste treatment. The initial step in media for media formulation is the examination of the overall process on the stoichiometery for growth and product formation. The optimization of a medium should be carried out such that it meets as many as possible of the seven criteria. Different combinations and sequences of process conditions have to be investigated to determine growth conditions (Stanbury P.F and Whitaker A; 1995). Medium optimization can be carried by the classical method, in which one independent variable is changed while keeping all others at a certain level. An aerobic fermentation process may be represented as: Carbon and energy source + Nitrogen source + O2 + other require ments Biomass + products + CO2 + H2O + heat This primarily involves consideration of the input of the carbon and nitrogen sources, minerals and oxygen and their conversion to cell biomass, metabolic products.Based on this information, it should be possible to calculate the minimum quantities of each element required to produce a certain quantity of biomass and metabolite According to Prasanthi V et al (2008); Chlorella vulgaris is a green, spherical, single celled fresh water microalga belongs to the phylum Chlorophyta. As per the study conducted so far it is found that green algae are the highest source of chlorophyll in the plant world and particularly, Chlorella one of the members of green algae is the richest source of chlorophyll which is widely used as a health food and feed supplement.The aim of this work is to design different medium types to evaluate optimization combinations for maximum growth, morphology and pigment content of C. vulgaris. Effect of glucose Three differen t volumes of glucose from apple juice while other variables are kept constant. The volumes that were used are 5g/l, 15g/l and 30g/l. The highest chlorophyll production (12%) was obtained with a glucose concentration of 15g/l. Glucose is used as a carbon source which is required for all biosynthesis leading to reproduction, product formation and cell maintenance. It also serves as the energy source.Carbon requirements may be determined from the biomass yield coefficient (Y), an index of the efficiency of conversion of a substrate into the cellular material: Ycarbon (g/g) = biomass produced (g) __________________ Glucose substrate utilized (g) An increase in glucose concentration of 30g/l resulted in the production of chlorophyll being at a constant this is because all the active sites of the microorganism are occupied and active carrying out biochemical reactions. At low glucose concentration of 5g/l very little biomass (chlorophyll) is obtained and also there is low growth rate.Thus , glucose concentration significantly influences chlorophyll production and microbial growth of the microorganism. Constraints that can be generated include the fact that apple juice not only contains one type of sugar, glucose but also contains other sugars (fructose and sucrose) which the microorganism can either utilise for growth resulting in us not obtaining accurate optimization results and also the other sugars can inhibit the growth of the microorganism. Apple juice also contains soluble pectin these can be difficult to digest hence a reduction in biomass.Effect of nitrogen from defatted soya Nitrogen being important constituent of the cell protein was needed for algal growth, either in combined or in molecular form. It is also a component of proteins nucleic acids some co-enzymes. Industrially important microorganisms can utilize both inorganic and organic nitrogen sources. Inorganic nitrogen may be supplied as ammonium salts, often ammonium sulphate and diammonium hydrogen phosphate, or ammonia; these can be used in place of defatted soya. Ammonia can also be used to adjust the pH of the fermentation.As nitrogen deficiency develops the amount of chlorophyll in the cells decreases faster than the nitrogen content in C. vulgaris. Nitrogen is a limiting factor if continually increased it can inhibit the production of chlorophyll. Varying concentrations of nitrogen were used i. e 0. 3g/l, 0,6g/l and 2. 0g/l. At 0. 3g/l little chlorophyll is obtained this is due to the fact that nitrogen being a macronutrient it is required in high concentration. At 0. 6g/l high yields of chlorophyll are obtained and at 2. 0g/l nitrogen turns to be a limiting factor and can lead to culture toxicity.Constraints can be generated when using Ammonia as a substitute for defatted soya this is due to the fact that ammonia leads to high pH which results in a precipitate formation in the medium but lower pH of the medium prevent the precipitation. Foaming in a microbiological proc ess is due to media proteins that become attached to the air-broth interface where they denature to form stable foam. Non-treatment of foam may block air filters, resulting in loss of aseptic conditions. The foam production can be controlled by addition of chemical antifoam. Natural antifoams include plant oils (e. g.Soya, sunflower and rapeseed), hence defatted soya is used as a nitrogen source rather than ammonia. Also high concentrations of ammonium ions can be toxic to cells of the microbe. Effect of Mg2+ MgSO4 can be used as the source of magnesium. It promotes the maximum growth of the present alga and it is also incorporated as an enzyme co-factor component of chlorophyll. Three salt concentrations were used 0. 1g/l; 0. 5g/l and 1g/l. At low salt concentration of 0. 1g/l it results in a magnesium deficiency which interrupted cell division in Chlorella which results in abnormally large cell formation. Increase in salt concentration of 0. g/l and 1g/l of magnesium alone in the medium resulted in higher cell number, although increase in nitrogen alone did not make much difference that means cells need magnesium to synthesize chlorophyll. The process of multiplication requires a larger concentration of magnesium in the medium than does the production of cell material. Iron uptake is strictly required to optimize the process. References 1). Crueger W and Crueger A. 1990. A Textbook of Industrial Microbiology. Oxford. Panima Publishing Corporation. 2). Stansbury P. F and Whitaker A . 1995. Principles of fermentation technology. New York. Pergamon Press. 3).Prasanthi V, Yugandhar M. N, Vuddaraju S. P, Nalla K. K, Raju C. A. I and Donthireddy S. R. R. Optimization of the fermentation media using statistical approach and artificial neural networks for the production of chlorophyll by Chlorella vulgaris. International Journal of Natural and Engineering Sciences. 2008. 2 (3): 51-56 CHINHOYI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY NAME: Ngara Tanyaradzwa R REG NUMBER: C1110934J C OURSE: Process Optimization and Production COURSE CODE: CUBT 208 PROGRAM: BSBIO Level 2:2 Assignment: 1 Lecturer Dr Zvidzai

Key Dimensions

It is a matter of fact that change is essential and inevitable part of the modern society and it significance is really dominant and great. Every public and private companies/organizations are subjected to rapid and frequent changes, because the world changes as well. A location and size of company doesn’t matter. Simply saying, it is practically impossible for the company to avoid changes, because they are phenomena which are universally accepted. Modern managers are working on finding ways how to staff a sense of control over changing situations. Actually resistance to change doesn’t mean that that the staff is against them, it means that they object only the way the changes are implemented. (Organizational Change 2006)Staff resists to changes simply because the reason for the change is unclear for them. Negative reactions can be caused by, for example, by ambiguity in jobs, costs and equipment.   The next reason is that staff wasn’t consulted about the possi ble changes and they appear to be an accomplished fact. It means that employees are willing to know what is going on in organization, especially if their jobs may be affected.The third reason of resistance is when the possible changes may threaten the existing patterns of working relationships between employees. People resist to changes also when they are not satisfied with personnel, monies and timetables or when the benefits for introducing changes are inadequate for the involved trouble. Especially staff is against changes when their power or status in organization is affected. Therefore, managers should tactfully introduce changes so that the majority of employees will be satisfied.(Rosenberg 20)The most important task for managers is to make their firms learning organizations. There are many tactics and approaches, but the most proper approach is to teach the staff well providing relevant stimuli for such learning. Different teaching and education programs may be successfully i mplemented. Also bonuses and personal approvals are allowed. Employees actually should be highly motivated. (Yerkes 462)Innovations are very important if the firm/organization wants to remain competitive in modern environment. Innovation is introduction of new methods and things with a definite purpose to improve the organization’s performance. Innovation is combination of knowledge applied to new service, processes and products.Organizational innovation involves creative ideas in order to make â€Å"tangible difference in the domain in which the innovation occurs†. (Hyde 64) Innovation is characterized by the following issues: relative advantage meaning that innovations have to produce significant improvements to be adapted; simplicity meaning that innovation should be easily understood and presented; inexpensiveness; easy to try meaning that new method should be easily introduced and abandoned if necessary; easy to measure meaning that benefits such as time, efficien cy and money should be easily calculated.(Hyde 64)It is apparent that stresses are also inevitable part in each organization. There are many potential sources of stress within organizational structure. For example, organization size may be a stressor.   Large organizations sometimes cause the sense of helplessness among employees. The next source is technology used by an organization for products or service production. Design of organization may negatively affect employees creating the sense of being controlled as a machine.The additional stress sources are personal conflicts, job design and work roles. (Laurus 773) It is known that stresses have negative results as they are the reasons of high blood pressure, coronary artery disease, stomach ulcers and heart attacks. Stress results also in depressions and anxieties as well as sleeplessness may worsen cognitive functioning. In the result a person may lose concentration and confidence in decision-making. There are many ways to mana ge stress such as, for example, altering stressors themselves, altering moderators of the stressors, lessening individual’s responses and alleviating the stress consequences. Organization can manage stress by providing support services, conflict resolution and cognitive therapy. (Kahn et al. 99)ReferencesAdaptation to change (2006) Bitpipe White papers online, Retrieved September, 30, from, A.C. (2002) Understanding Innovation in Management. The Public Manager, 31, 3, 64.  James Morrison, & Ian Wilson. (1996) The Strategic Management Response to the Challenge of Global Change, Strategic Management, 7, 3, 25-27.Kahn, R.L., Wolfe, R.P., Quinn, R.P., Snoek, J.D., & Rosenthal, R.A. (1964). Organizational Stress: Studies in Role Conflict and Ambiguity. New York: Wiley, 98-102.Lazarus, R.S., DeLongis, A., Folkman, S., & Gruen, R. (1985). Stress and Adaptational Outcomes: The Problems of Confounded Measures.   American Psychologist, 40, 770-779.Organizational change management (2006) Journal of Organizational Change Management, Emerald Group Publishing Limited Retrieved September, 30, from, Deanne. (1993, January) Eliminating Resistance to Change. Security Management, 37, 1, 20-23.Yerkes, R.M. & Dodson, J.D. (1988). The Relation of Strength of Stimulus to Rapidity of Habit-Formation. Journal of Comparative Neurology and Psychology, 18, 459-482.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Compare And Contrast The Political Agendas Of Putin And Ahmadinejad Term Paper

Compare And Contrast The Political Agendas Of Putin And Ahmadinejad - Term Paper Example They are geared towards ensuring that the lives of their ordinary citizens are completely transformed economically as well as politically. Moreover, they are completely opposed to the west’s dominance over the global affairs. They view this dominance as primarily geared towards protecting the interests of the west at the expense of other world countries. It is in the light of the feeling that they all want to salvage their countries from this influence. They intend to achieve this by building a strong economy base in the country. They are of the opinion that a strong economy is not likely to be subjected to manipulation. Their political agenda Putin’s political agenda is demonstrated in a number of moves that are intended to reduce uncertainty as who will contest the presidency of Russia the moment he will step down. He will go on to control the country’s election even on finishing his term which is seen as a good move because it will foster political stability a nd reduce political tensions. Putin adopted a strategy that was called the zero option. This was geared towards prohibition on the redistribution of property as well as prohibition of any kind of prosecution of those perceived to have taken part in the privatization. Putin believed that what posed the greatest threat to Russia’s strategic stability was the American unilateralism. He wanted an assurance that United States would always act in a multi lateral fashion as opposed to its usual ways of pursuing its own national interest and in the process interfere with national interests of other countries Russia included. Putin was elected the Russian president in January 2000. His pledge was that he would bring stability and order in Russia as well as initiate a process that would restore Russia to its initial greatness. His political agenda was to unify the Russian Society, bring stability to the Russian economy as well as strengthen the country. He wanted to ensure a calm inter national environment which he viewed as the key to Russia’s goal of rebuilding. Putin made impression in the process of restoring the country’s stability domestically through a variety of methods. His agenda was to pursue a program based on careful as well as consistent economic and administrative reforms. These changes were premised on; quashing any kind of political opposition as well as establishing the central government’s authority. To achieve this he had to put in place a stable economic platform. This is why the country’s GDP continued to grow, enabling Russia to pay for its budget being the first Soviet Union country to be able to do so. Before he was elected Ahmadinejad was a very little known political figure. Since his election in 2005 he has made notable attempts to revive the populist policies that characterize The Islamic Revolution in earlier days. This is characterized by his political style of confrontation. His authoritarianism coupled w ith the many incendiary comments that he made against the United States as well as Israel. These remarks have made him a figure viewed as very controversial. Ahmadinejad’ administration is very vocal in its attempt at promoting an agenda that is Pan-Islamic as well as driving the influence of Iran in regional matters. As a result he has received dominance over western media as one of the up-coming leader from the developing world and keen on challenging global order that is being led by America. His ideals and rhetoric are purely populist. They

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Short critical reflection paper Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Short critical reflection paper - Assignment Example "The survey proves that mobile devices and technology have changed the traditional college experience and the role technology plays in students academic abilities and success," said Jessica Nelson of CourseSmart. "Todays students are truly carrying a digital backpack." (Olavsrud, 2011) Keeping up with the increasing trends, instructors are also doing their best to use the digital means for teaching. Research concludes that about ninety seven percent of the students receive digital course material from their instructors each day. â€Å"Cyber bullying is bullying through email, instant messaging (IMing), chat room exchanges, Web site posts, or digital messages or images send to a cellular phone or personal digital assistant (PDA)† (as quoted from Olweus,2011). Cyber bullying has been on an alarming rise since the past 5 years. According statistics published in the ‘CyberBullying Alert’ site, the National Crime Prevention Centre has quoted the following statistics about cyber bullying in the last five years: The reasons behind Cyber Bullying primarily are that due to ineffective and non-promulgation of privacy laws abusers tend to make false identities over social media and thus openly abuse other users often youngsters. It is because of cyber bullying and some other misuse of the social web that it is highly recommended that ethical and social guidelines be defined and followed whenever interacting over the said media. There are high possibilities that due to the promulgation of internet etiquette guidelines cyber bullying would reduce considerably. The world is not flat for all of us. Consider a haircut†¦can you outsource that? What about repairs on your home? Is that service part of the â€Å"flat† world coined by Friedman? So then, what is globalization all about and how is technology one of the drivers? The world definitely is not flat in line with what Friedman says. There are geographical and

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Marketing communications Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Marketing communications - Essay Example So now there is a desperate need to introduce, develop and implement various marketing communications tools in order to cater for the needs and influence the buying patterns of this ‘average bloke’ group. For any marketing plan to be successfully implemented, we first need to evaluate all possible communication tools and methods to promote the product. Next we need deduce what communication tools would best work for the product, and influencing the consumer to the maximum potential as well. Although women aged between 30 to 50 years are properly segmented and targeted, this is not the same for men of the same age group. First we need to construct a profile for the ‘average bloke’, defining their traits and personality characteristics. ‘Average Bloke’, tend to purchase based on their experiences. They buy the product based on quality mostly, and can easily compromise over quantity. Average bloke don’t waste time in buying a product, and wi sh to acquire the maximum information about a product in the least amount of time. Furthermore, average bloke recommend purchase decision based on WOM (Word Of Mouth), which is mostly preferred from family members and friend’s circle. Average bloke also spend less time on shopping as compared to women of the same age group, hence it can be deduced that for the average bloke time is of value. And if the purchasing time is less, the amount of satisfaction derived is the greatest. Average bloke, mostly feel that marketing strategies are just aimed at fooling the consumers into buying a useless product, hence the campaigns used to influence them should portray traits of sincerity, devotion and loyalty towards the consumers. Lastly we can also induce into the profile that average bloke require a strong, lasting and rational relationship with the brand, not just a temporary one. Marketing strategies consists of the marketing mix, which

Monday, August 26, 2019

Childhood Obesity Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Childhood Obesity - Essay Example However, the physical cost of being obese are much greater even than this. It is well-known that obesity can dramatically lower life expectancy at every age level. Approaching epidemic proportions, identifying the causes and treatment of obesity is of utmost importance particularly when working with children who have an entire lifetime ahead of them. An obese person is someone who has more body fat than science considers healthy for their particular height, body type, gender and age. As a general rule, people who are 40 to 100 pounds over this determined ideal weight range are considered obese. People who are more than 100 pounds over this weight range are called morbidly obese. Heredity significantly influences obesity. People who are genetically predisposed to being obese have a harder time trying to lose weight or to maintain a desired body mass. Children born into overweight families are often overweight even before they have the opportunity to try maintaining a healthy weight. Other contributing factors to the problem of obesity in children can include metabolic and socioeconomic circumstances, diseases, endocrine ailments and medications Metabolism refers to how efficiently a person’s body burns up energy. Metabolic levels and hormonal balances differ widely from one person to another and both factor significantly i n controlling weight. (â€Å"Overview of Obesity†, 2007). Overeating, eating fatty foods and spending long periods of time in inactivity also contribute significantly to obesity. Studies have also shown that there is a connection between substandard economic circumstances and the rates of obesity in children. The food available to lower income populations usually has a higher level of empty calories, meaning it is poor in nutritional value but high in fat and corn syrup. Children growing up in low income homes don’t always have the option to eat well and

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Reentry Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Reentry - Essay Example While serving the sentence they could be subjected to mental abuse or mental health treatment. This results in less and less people participating in vocational or pre-release educational programs. Without the skill sets required to survive, with the police record that cant be wiped or erased, no family accepting or supporting them and no where to go, great majority is re arrested in less than six months. It probably would be easy to pick people for the crimes they have committed as it is a necessary act for smooth and safe functioning of the society. However reintegrating them into the society is a task that seems an undaunted perpetual problem. As the number of ex-convicts continues to grow, their alienation poses as a threat to the society, which their imprisonment is expected to protect. The story of Jean Sanders narrated by Amanda Ripley in Living on the Outside touches all the issues faced by the ex-convict. Jean was picked by the law several times for petty drug dealing and car thieving. All he wanted was a normal life. His struggle is a representative case. During the 1990s America witnessed multiplying of prisons. It was forgotten that the more are locked inside, the more needed to be released. Rehabilitation was not the game of the day. Outside the prisons the Federal Government restricted welfare and housing facilities to the ex-criminals. In such case, when no education to support, no vocational training, a non-accepting society and family who is not ready to take in, these ex-criminals turn to crime again. This has also resulted in the law enforcing system turning into supervisory system. Sanders had to make valiant efforts to pick up a better job. He is unable to do manual labor due to injury caused during imprisonment. This is again representative as most ex-criminals have serious health and medical problems. The parolees are expected to do several reporting. As quoted in the article, â€Å"the system is designed

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Lady Gaga Telephone Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Lady Gaga Telephone - Essay Example The song, without the video, sounds like a simple scenario where the girl isn’t picking up a phone call while she is at the club, but the music video shows a hidden, deeper meaning. In 2011, the song was nominated for the Best Pop Collaboration with Vocals at the Grammy’s. It became one of the best-selling singles of Gaga in 2010 after 7.4 million copies were sold. It was also nominated as the Video of the Year at the 2010 MTV Music Video Awards. Thus, the song has a deeper, hidden meaning which is not understandable by the masses because it is meant to be ‘hidden’. The telephone is actually used as a metaphor to describe Gaga’s brain, and she is not answering the phone means she is disconnected from the reality. Lady Gaga is an American singer, record producer, songwriter along with being a fashion designer and businesswoman. She had initially started working as a songwriter when hired by Vincent Herbert for the label Interscope Records. Her vocal abilities were soon recognized by Akon, a recording artist, who signed her for his own label. Her debut album was The Fame after which she rose to prominence in 2008. The album was a commercial and critical success with some of the best international numbers such as Poker Face and Just Dance. Then she released The Fame Monster in 2009 which was an extended play that produced some of the biggest hits including Telephone and Bad Romance. Gaga has widely recognized for her songs and more importantly her music videos. Her videos always have a deep meaning which is not noticeable from the lyrics of the song. She always adds a deeper meaning to the lyrics through her videos and her videos provide great insight into the reality and cruelty of the world. In the video of Telephone also she has succeeded in providing a deep meaning which can’t be understood by the masses because they are meant to be understood by the elites only (Marshall 148).

Friday, August 23, 2019

Pure Strategy Math Problem Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Pure Strategy - Math Problem Example Player A would prefer to have the largest value possible from those highlighted. In the diagram this can be seen to occur when the line V = 2 + 7X intersects with V= 6 - 3X which occurs at the point as determined below. Value of the game is as follows. The minimax criteria is to maximise the minimum values. To find the solution for B's strategy we need to identify and solve the 2 by 2 pay-off matrix associated with A's optimal strategy. In this case that will be the columns associated with the lines V= 2 + 7X and V= 6 - 3X. Hence 3 9 6 2 Q3. a) Solution: The transformation is as follows. Total Number of audience = 10000000 Total audience size as a pair in each matrix element = 100000 Total value of a pair in each matrix element = 10000000/100000 = 100 Subtracting half the total value of a pair as computed above from each element of the payoff matrix defined in the question. Half the total value = 50 Payoff Matrix SkyCast Historical Drama Comedy Contemporary Drama Variety Mini Series 60 - 50 58 - 50 49 - 50 52 - 50 RayTV Detective 55 - 50 52 - 50 54 - 50 59 - 50 Film 55 - 50 54 - 50 47 - 50 55 - 50 Variety 47 - 50 54 - 50 56 - 50 61 - 50 Transformed Matrix: SkyCast Historical Drama Comedy Contemporary Drama Variety Mini Series 10 8 -1 2 RayTV Detective 5 2 4 9 Film 5 4 -3 5 Variety -3 4 6 11 b) Solution: SkyCast Historical Drama Comedy Contemporary Drama Variety Mini Series 10 8 -1 2 RayTV Detective 5 2 4 9 Film 5 4 -3 5 Variety -3 4 6 11 Comparing fourth column with the third column 2 > -1, 9 > 4, 5 > -3...In the diagram this can be seen to occur when the line V = 2 + 7X intersects with V= 6 - 3X which occurs at the point as determined below. The minimax criteria is to maximise the minimum values. To find the solution for B's strategy we need to identify and solve the 2 by 2 pay-off matrix associated with A's optimal strategy. In this case that will be the columns associated with the lines V= 2 + 7X and V= 6 - 3X. Hence The value decides the type of the show to be put out in order to maximise the ratings over the coming TV season. The value against Detective has more gain (approximately 3.33) and hence it has to be put out in order to maximise the ratings.

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Improving Health Care Quality & Patient Safety in an Acute Care Essay

Improving Health Care Quality & Patient Safety in an Acute Care Setting - Essay Example , traditionally dealt with through focus on mistakes from individuals, are now accepted to result, not from human error alone, but also from failure of systems. For this reason, it is important to maintain safety and quality of healthcare in acute settings. Preventable adverse effects, in particular, are believed to be because of systemic and latent failures in care-delivery systems. The key to ensuring safety and quality in acute healthcare settings is using defense mechanisms, which can identify and interrupt situations that could be dangerous (Healy, 2009). One example of this in an acute clinical setting is the systematic surveillance of patients by nurses that may serve, as a defense mechanism to stop dangerous situations, as well as strategies for error recovery. There are several key challenges that face quality and patient safety in acute settings. Systemic factors like underuse of technology in existence, failure to include family and patient in making decisions, poor collaboration from healthcare members, inadequate resources, and poor staffing is one of them. Another challenge has to do, with human factors like the skills and education of nurses, to implement quality and safety strategies (Healy, 2009). Novice nurses, especially, are overwhelmed by time and task constraints, which prevent them from integrating the â€Å"big picture† that effective improvement of quality and patient safety in acute care settings requires. Resources like data access and time are vital in the performance of comprehensive assessments. Healthcare workers who are interrupted, distracted, or responsible for functions that are not related to nursing will not have enough time to devote to this improvement. Collaboration, which is essential to this improve ment, especially with patients and their families, has influence on acute patients’ outcomes (Healy, 2009). Policies or unit structures that are not conducive to this collaboration impedes on the process, as well as adversely

Freud’s theory of Psychosexual Development Essay Example for Free

Freud’s theory of Psychosexual Development Essay I will begin my essay by outlining Freud’s theory of Psychosexual Development and I will then go on to evaluate how far this help us to understand a client’s presenting issue. Freud’s theory of psychosexual development begins with the belief that human beings are purely driven by biology, in the form of the libido or sexual energy. The driving force of the libido is divided into five stages, he argues, and our early experiences during childhood are responsible for the development of a healthy personality, or if any individual were to experience trauma during these stages then it would result in disruption in the child’s personal development and the child may become stuck in this stage, resulting in neurosis. This five stages of sexual libido are: The Oral Stage – from birth to about 18 months – is where the child directs all its attention to the mouth in the form of sucking, eating and drinking. If stuck in this stage the client may still like to use their mouth a lot, resulting in the client presenting with overeating, drinking, smoking or talking The Anal Stage – from about 18 months to three years – is where the child directs their attention to the elimination of waste, and of the feelings experienced by the expelling of waste. This is also the stage where the child first experiences an element of control over themselves, as to where they excrete or and indeed whether or not they excrete their waste product. The child learns that he can use his bodily functions to elicit attention from his carer by excreting on the floor rather than in the potty. Clients stuck in the anal stage may be either anally retentive or expulsive in personality. Those that are anally retentive individuals are controlling and like to have everything in order – they may suffer from OCD and have quick outbursts of anger. Anally expulsive individuals tend to be untidy and disorganised. The Phallic Stage – from about three to five years – is where children become aware of their genital regions. This is the stage where the child starts to become aware of the differences between male and female genitalia, and their energy is spent undressing themselves, and perhaps others, in order to explore these differences. It is also the stage  of manipulating the genitals and the discovery of pleasure in doing so. It is during this stage that the Oedipus conflict arises; the belief that a boy has incestuous cravings for his mother and views his father as a rival for this affection. The boy also fears his father, as his father is bigger than him in all ways including his penis. Freud argued that the boy feels castration anxiety at this stage as a result of repressed sexual desire for his mother. If the boy has the correct parenting at this stage, then the boy identifies with the father and comes to have harmless affection for the mother. The Electra complex is the female counterpart. It is based on the view that each girl wants to possess her father and replace her mother. A phallic fixation can lead to an individual with a narcissistic, homosexual, egotistical or overly sexualised personality that may lead to serial marriage, polygamy or polyandry. The phallic fixation tends to use sex to discharge emotional tension and will often have sexual relationships that are superficial and lacking in love and affection The Latency Stage – from five years to adolescence. In this stage, sexual motivated needs subside as the child focuses their attention on developing other skills needed for their survival. A child stuck in this stage may have issues forming sexual relationships and have trouble expressing themselves sexually, leaving themselves and or their partners sexually unfulfilled. The Genital Stage – from adolescence to adulthood. During the onset of adolescence, the child moves from self-love or narcissistic love to diverting this love to others. It is argued by psychotherapists that are advocates of this theory that individuals disrupted during the ‘Genital stage’ may result in sexual disorders such as fetishes and paedophilia. According to Freud, only symptoms can be modified, and not the behaviour of the client – this can be done in two ways: 1. Lessening of the intensity of the unconscious urges, by bringing them to the consciousness or by strengthening the defences against them. An example of lessening the client’s behaviour is by encouraging a client to leave a job where aggressive urges were continually being aroused by an oppressive boss. 2. Alternatively the client can act out their urges in a more acceptable and symbolic way. An example being that anal urges can be expressed through pottery, as an alternative to faecal play. Feminists would argue that Freud’s theory concentrates on male sexual development, and provides little in understanding female sexuality. Freud’s work has also  been criticised for over emphasising sex drive and little else in order to assess a client’s presenting issue. Carl Jung and Fromm, two students of Freud, agreed with this statement, but used Freud’s work to develop their own theories, which I outline below. Carl Jung (1875 -1961) believed that that the libido was not just sexual energy, but instead generalised psychic energy. The purpose of this psychic energy was to motivate the individ ual in a number of ways, including spiritually, intellectually, and creatively. It was an individual’s source for seeking pleasure as well as reducing conflict. Jung placed greater emphasis on the unconscious than Freud; he argued that the psyche was composed of three components. Firstly, he believed that the ego is conscious, because people are aware of their own thoughts, memories and emotions. The unconscious mind, Jung believed, was split into two parts (the remaining two components): The personal unconscious, which is the same as Freud’s belief, in that it consists of repressed memories. Jung explained an important feature of the personal unconscious called ‘complexes’. A complex is a collection of thoughts, feelings, attitudes and memories, which focus on a single concept. The more elements attached to the ‘complex’ the greater its influence on the individual. The second deeper level is the Collective consciousness. This level of unconscious is shared with other members of the human species, comprising of latent memories from our ancestral and evolutionary past (‘The form of the world into which a person is born is already inborn in him, as a virtual image’ Jung, 1953). Jung called the ancestral memories and images ‘archetypes’. For Jung, our primitive past becomes the basis of the human psyche, directing and influencing present behaviour. Important archetypes include: the persona, or our social mask, just like an actor in a play; Anima/Animus, or our male and female sides – this comes from living side by side with the opposite sex for centuries; the shadow, similar to Freud’s ID, comprised of our animal urges or survival and reproduction. Jung argued that the psychological development of both sexes was undermined as the development of western society has led to the devaluation of feminine qualities over the predominance of the persona, leading to insecurity. Jung agreed with Freud that a person’s past and childhood experiences determined future behaviour, but he also believed that we are shaped by our future aspirations too. Erich Fromm (1900 – 1980) differed with the Freudian  emphasis on unconscious drives. Fromm argues that a person’s drives were not purely biological – he believed that man had free choice to decide on whatever action he felt appropriate and therefore gui ded their own destiny. Fromm saw conflict arising within the individual, when they had to weigh up the freedom of choice with the fear of uncertainty, when making these decisions. As a sociologist and psychologist, his theories integrated both psychology and Marxist Historical Materialism. Fromm argued that each socioeconomic class fosters a particular character, governed by ideas and concepts that justify and maintain the socioeconomic system. Fromm believed that the unique character of human existence gives rises to eight basic needs. Firstly Unity, as human beings have lost their original oneness with nature, they need to relate in order to overcome their isolation. Secondly their relatedness with others, care, respect and knowledge. Thirdly humans need to transcend their own nature, as well as their passivity and randomness of existence, which can be accomplished either positively, by loving and creating, or negatively, through hatred and destruction. Fourthly the individual also requires a sense of rootedness or belonging, in order to gain a feeling of security, and sense of identity. Fifthly the sense of identity which is expressed non-productively as conformity to a group and productively as an individual. Sixthly is need is for orientation understanding the wor ld and our place in it. Seventhly is excitation and stimulation or actively striving for a goal rather than simply responding. Eighthly is effectiveness the need to feel accomplished. This Orientation can be achieved either through assimilation (relating to things) or socialisation (relating to people). Fromm identified several character Orientations in Western Society. Authoritarianism when an individual cannot come to terms with this freedom, he could avoid his responsibilities by withdrawing beneath the protection of someone or something else. Examples of this include God, a specific political leader of party, an institution of even one’s carer. Receptive Orientation this is common in a society which encourages exploitation of the individual, who then seeks solace in affection and related comforts, such as eating, where the individual can only take and not give. Exploitative Orientation the defence being the aggressive possession of goods, usually those of others. Examples being the plundering of goods in historical times, or in more modern times, those  nations that seek the territories and chattels of others. Productive Orientation which donates love and tolerance towards others, and an acceptance of their freedom, with the ability to use this orientation to their advantage, without harming others. Hoarding Orientation – the ‘I want – I need’ society, based on material wealth. If one owns objects, then the individual can be seen, at least in his eyes, as clever and powerful. These individuals are threatened by the outside world and cannot share. Marketing Orientation – this is people copying or being influenced by the media and advertising by wearing the latest fashions. Individual personal qualities are redundant over what looks good. The individual sees themselves as a commodity to be bought and sold. Fromm added two further states: Necrophilous character- attracted to death Biophilous character – drawn to life. According to Fromm, gaining independence from one’s parents leads to a profound sense of loneliness and isolation, which the individual attempts to escape by establishing some type of bond with society through social conformity and submission to authority. By relating both Jung and Fromm’s work to our clients, they have made us aware of the client’s wider world or heritage into which he or she is born. Jung would argue that a Muslim woman may have low self-esteem and isolate herself from others, but these presenting issues are more down to the client’s collective consciousness than their childhood. In this case, Jung helps us as therapist to understand that the client’s neurosis may not arise from bad parenting, but from something primal based upon evolution within the individual. Fromm’s Socio- economic theories also provide us with insight of the client’s wider world, and how neurosis can arise due to external economic forces that dr ive the client’s neurosis in an exploitative and materialistic society that values things over the human existence. Both would argue that it is our environment rather than biology that constrains us, in the form of society and culture. For Jung and Fromm, in order to understand the client’s presenting issue, we must also understand their culture and the way in which they relate to the economic society into which they are born. An alternative view to Freud’s psychosexual development is that of the Behaviourist approach. Behaviourists believe that what is learned can be unlearned. Skinner built upon the work  of Pavlov’s classical conditioning experiments (1927) and his use of dogs as subjects, and the Little Albert experiments of Watson and Rayner (1920). To further these experiments, Skinner (1938) designed a Puzzle box and, by using rats, he showed that by using both positive and negative reinforcements, he could change the behaviour of the rats, as their behaviour is affected by consequences. He called this Operant Conditioning to which he identified three responses: Neutral Operants: responses from the environment that neither increase nor decrease the probability of a behaviour repeated. Reinforces: responses from the environment that increase the probability of a behaviour being repeated – this can be ether positive or negative Punishers: Responses from the environment that decrease the probability of a behaviour being repeated. Punishment weakens behaviour. Skinner concluded that there was a Law of Effect, and that by using reinforcement, behaviour tends to be repeated, while behaviour which is not reinforced tends to die out. As human beings, we often respond to verbal Operants by taking advice, listening to the warnings of others and by obeying given rules and laws. This helps us understand the development of children, as the feelings associated with behaviour are controlled by conditioning. If the child has been positively rewarded, then the child is more likely to repeat those behaviours happily and willingly, feeling that they are doing what they want to be doing. If on the other hand the child avoids these behaviours due to negative reinforcement, they will be inclined to feel that their freedoms are being repressed, resulting in feelings of negativity, which could led to depression or anxiety. The work of Skinner, Pavlov, Watson and Rayner has led to the development of different treatments, such as C ognitive behavioural therapy and talking therapy that will help you manage your problems by changing the way you think and behave, commonly used to treat anxiety, depression and phobias but can be useful for other mental and physical health problems. In conclusion, Freud’s work on psychosexual development does help us in part to understand a client’s presenting issue, by understanding that their behaviour may very well stem from how their parents handled the child’s psychosexual development. By accepting this assertion, it also helps us to understand that what we, as society, view as very disturbing or deviant behaviour can arise from childhood trauma. This allows the therapist, and society, to be more  compassionate to such clients. An example of this is that Freud stated that homosexuality is neither a sinful nor a criminal act, but rather a condition that arose from childhood biological and psychological factors, and was just a ‘variation of the sexual function’, and because of this is could not be treated by punishment or therapy, but should just be accepted. Freud’s work, as already discussed, is limited in understanding the client’s total world, however we must understand th at Freud’s work was the first of its kind in understanding human psychological development, and was written at a time when most adults probably were sexually repressed, as well as viewing homosexuality as sinful. The later work of others, including Jung and Fromm, built upon his work, to help us understand the client’s presenting issue in a wider context. They widened our worldly view of the client by demonstrating how neurosis of the individual may also arise due to internal factors of the collective consciousness, arising from cultural and social heritage, or by external factors, such as how the client relates to the economic environment into which they are born. The work of the behaviourists also helps us to understand that any negative social conditioning also plays its part in understanding the client’s presenting issue. As a final note, we must remember that it is the job of the therapist to use the work of others as a tool to understanding the client’s own world in order to get enough understanding of the client’s perspective in relation to their own presenting issue. This understanding helps facilitate the client in coming to their own conclusions as to how best to tackle their own presenting issue, either by managing their condition from the Freudian perspective, or helping them change their own perspective and/or behaviour, as argued by the behaviourists. Bibliography What Freud Really Said – David Stafford-Clark (1996) 1935 – Freud’s letter response to a mother asking him to treat her homosexual son. (1935) Handbook of Individual Therapy – Edited by Windy Dryden (1990) Counselling for Toads – Robert De Board (1998) McLeod, S.A (2008)

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Activation Cracks And Workarounds Windows Vista Computer Science Essay

Activation Cracks And Workarounds Windows Vista Computer Science Essay Windows Vista enthusiasts and lovers already can download final RTM version gold release of Windows Vista from the Internet, way before the scheduled and target release date of Windows Vista to retail customer on early 2007. However, unless you have a hand on corporate volume license key (VLK), as Windows Vista is not yet officially goes on sale, so you wont possible to purchase a license to get hold on a legal and genuine product key to activate and Windows Vista product activation (WPA) process to validate that the copy of Vista is genuine. In this situation, so in the situation that youre having problem to successfully complete Windows Vista activation, or wish to bypass and skip the activation process, you can install Windows Vista in trial demo mode and extend the grace period for activation for longer usage when the activation expiry date closing by. If you want to get rid of evaluation copy watermark message, visit here. Else, users need to use some tricks and hacks to activate Windows Vista (or make Windows Vista to believe itself has been activated). Try the following cracks and hacks to properly install Windows Vista without activation or to crack Vista activation so that WPA can be bypassed, skipped or avoided. (both not tested, but should works) Disconnect from Internet. Restart the computer. Set the computer date to 26 December 2006. Exit and save the BIOS settings. Install Disable automatically synchronize computer time with Internet time Restart the computer. E Set back the time to current date and time in BIOS. Save and exit the BIOS configuration menu. Connect to the Internet. Boot up to Windows Vista. With the time changing trick, Windows Vista will stop countdown to the activation grace period timeout date. (no longer works, or only worked on RC build) There is similar method but use year 2099 which made famous by pirated Vista DVD. Another crack or hack to activate Windows Vista is by replacing 2 files in Windows Vista Final RTM version with the same files from Windows Vista RC2 (only from build 5840, similar files from build 5744 or earlier wont work), and then use Windows Vista product key or registration key released and distributed via CPP (Customer Preview Program) intended for Windows Vista betas and release candidate to activate Windows Vista RTM Build 6000. (its actually the same technique or method that used to install and activate pre-RTM Windows Vista such as build 5840). Install Windows Vista Final by using default product key (no product key entered). Download the crack Windows.Vista.FINAL.Crack.raVen.rar or Windows.Vista.RTM.Activation.Crack-iND.rar or Microsoft.Windows.Vista.RTM.PROPER.Activation.Crack-ReeBSaW or Windows.Vista.RTM.dEnoura.Crack.rar (all contains but packed by different crackers), and extract the compressed file. Navigate to WindowsSystem32Licensingpkeyconfig folder. Locate and right-click on pkeyconfig.xrm-ms file. Click on Properties, then open Security > Advanced > Owner > Edit, and click on Administrators. Click OK and close the Properties window. Right click again on pkeyconfig.xrm-ms file, and select Properties to open Properties window. Open Security > Advanced > Edit, then select Administrators and click Edit. Click on Full Control, then click OK and close the file Properties. Restart the computer and boot up in the Safe Mode. Replace and overwrite pkeyconfig.xrm-ms using the same file extracted from the downloaded package. Go to Start -> Run (or press Windows + R keys) to start Run box. Type in services.msc to launch Services (can also be launched from Control Panel). Find and locate the Software Licensing service. If its running, press on Stop button to stop the service. Navigate and browse to WindowsServiceProfilesNetworkServiceAppData RoamingMicrosoftSoftwareLicensing folder. Overwrite and replace the tokens.dat with the same file from the extracted package. You may need to take ownership and full control of the file by following step 5 9. Reboot and restart the computer, and bootup in normal mode. Go to Start > Help Support, and search for Activate by using search menu, then click on the third topic Activate Windows on this Computer to start Windows Activation. Alternatively go to Start and type in slui.exe into the Search Bar and press Enter to go to Windows Activation window. Input any Windows Vista product key or registration key or CD key from RC1 or RC2 or Beta 1 or Beta 2 or any other released by Microsoft and leaked to Internet to activate the Windows Vista. If you dont have any product key, sign up and register for Windows Vista Customer Preview Program (CPP) to receive a valid and legal product key. Or download the Windows.Vista.RTM.Activation.Crack-iND.rar which contains a RC product key in the archive. Run the genuine and activated Vista. There are also some hackers who combined the above 2 methods to stop the Windows Vista Product Activation countdown timer and then to activate Windows Vista by using cracked license files for RC1 and RC2. Restart the PC and boot into BIOS. Set the date to year 2099. Create and format the partition or hard disk that will be used to fresh install new Windows Vista. Next, install VISTA, do not enter any serial number so that user has 30-day window period for activation as trial demo that valid till 2099 instead of only working for 3 days due to illegal, ban, pirated, expired or not working and not genuine license key. After install, follow the Vista WPA crack procedures as immediate above method to activate the Windows Vista so that its as if genuine and legal. If you dont have Internet connection, you can activate Windows Vista by phone. There is now also a Windows Vista Activators AIO which packs most of the cracks (all of them using the same workaround actually) and product serial key into one single download package. Inside, there is Windows Vista Activator.exe which automatically apply the patch without the need for manual replacing process to crack and activate Vista. Enjoy Windows Vista before Microsoft closes this pirate loophole via Windows/Microsoft Updates or Windows Genuine Advantage (WGA) validation test, or the product key from RC or beta expired. Update: The final truth has came, in the form of KB929391 Windows Vista Validation Tool update. Find ways to crack KB929391. There is permanent method to crack Vista activation. Disclaimer: This article is for informational purpose only.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Proton-proton Coupling Constant

Proton-proton Coupling Constant Easily recognized splitting patterns found in various spectra provide the chemical shifts of the different sets of hydrogen that generate the signals differ by two or more ppm. The patterns are symmetrically distributed on both sides of the proton chemical shift, and the central lines are always stronger than the outer lines. The most commonly observed patterns have been given descriptive names, such as doublet (two equal intensity signals), triplet (three signals with an intensity ratio of 1:2:1) and quartet (a set of four signals with intensities of 1:3:3:1). The line separation is always constant within a given multiplet, and is called the coupling constant (J). The magnitude of J, usually given in units of Hz, is magnetic field independent. Coupling constants play an immense role in configurational and conformational studies. The relative position of protons is determining factor for Vicinal coupling constant between two protons. For example, in 1,2-disubstituted ethenes, the lar ger vicinal coupling constant was observed between the olefinic protons for the trans isomer 82a than for the cis isomer 82b [127,134]. The vicinal coupling constant depends on the dihedral angle between the protons in saturated systems. Karplus [118] gave equations 1 and 2 relating the coupling constant with dihedral angles. J1 = k1cos2à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ ¦ c (0 à ¯Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ £ à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ ¦ à ¯Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ £ 90 °) †¦ (1) J2 = k2cos2à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ ¦ c (0 à ¯Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ £ à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ ¦ à ¯Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ £ 180 °)†¦ (2) These equations were later modified as equation 3. J2 = A cos2à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ ¦ B cos2à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ ¦ + C †¦ (3) In equation 3, J is the coupling constant and A, B and C are constants related to the electro-negativities of the substituents attached to the C-C segment. The J value decreases markedly with increase in the electronegativities of the substituents [135-140]. 13C-NMR: Transitions of only 13C nuclei are noticed in 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Figure 3 represents different ÃŽ ´ values (in ppm), couplings, coupling constants (in Hz) and chemical shifts of 13C nuclei processing in different chemical environments. Usually, ÃŽ ´ value scale of 13C-NMR ranges from 0-220 ppm with respect to TMS as internal standard. 13C-NMR spectral interpretation can be best understood from chart given in figure 3 [126,127]. 13C Chemical shift As in the same ways of proton NMR spectrum, Chemical Shift in 13C NMR spectrum provides the hybridization (sp3, sp2, sp) of each carbon nucleus due to shielding and deshielding effects. Each carbon nucleus has its own electronic environment, different from the environment of other, non-equivalent nuclei. Figure 3: Chart representing 13C nuclei chemical shift due to different chemical environments. Electronegative atoms and pi bonds cause downfield shifts (â€Å"Thinkbook†). Spin-spin coupling provides the number of protons attached to the 13C nuclei. (i.e., primary, secondary tertiary or quaternary carbon) [126,127]. Carbon (13C) has a much broader chemical shift range. One important difference is that the aromatic and alkene regions overlap to a significant extent [126,127].Many factors such as inductive effects of substituent, hybridization state of the observed nucleus, Van der Wall’s and steric effects between closely spaced nuclei, electric fields originating from molecular dipoles or point charges, hyperconjugation, mesomeric interactions in à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ ° electron systems (delocalization effects), diamagnetic shielding due to heavy substituents (heavy-atom effect) and anisotropy effects is known to influence the 13C Chemical shift of six-membered ring compounds. Among those factor, electrostatic effects due to the presence of a heteroatom in the cyclohexane moiety and steric perturbation effects being intrinsic importance. Lambert et al. [141] documented the effect of heteroatom in monoheterocyclohexanes 83 on the shifts of ring carbons. The à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ ¡-shift is a steep function of electronegativity of heteroatom X. A high frequency shift of about 50 ppm is produced by an increase in one unit electronegativity. However, a small effects of heteroatom electronegativity on à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ ¢ and à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ §-carbons are produced, a shift of -2.5 ppm/electronegativity unit for à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ ¢ and -5.0 ppm/electronegativity unit for à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ §-carbon, respectively. Ramalingam et al have demonstrated the effect of introduction of heteroatom in 84a-84e [86]. The decreasing order of the deshielding effect of heteroatom on the benzylic carbon is O > NMe > NH > S. because of a field effect, the heteroatom generates a low frequency an upfield shift in the ca rbonyl resonance. Contrary to à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ ¡ and à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ ¢ effects, the à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ §-effect is being a property of at least four atoms and it has a torsional component. All ÃŽ ³ anti substituents cause increased shielding on C-5 due to the presence of ÃŽ ± and ÃŽ ³ protons. The ÃŽ ³ anti effect C-3 is found to be rather deshielding. The resonating carbon and perturbing à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ § substituent showed the dihedral angle arrangement ranging from 0-180 °. à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ §-gauche effects is found to be almost independent of the nature of the perturbing group X and generally occur in the 60-80 ° regions, whereas à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ §-anti effect in the 150-180 ° regions. The introduction of an axial substituent shifts the resonance of a à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ §-carbon to lower frequencies. The à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ §-anti effect (introduction of an equatorial substituent) is small. Interpretation of the substituent effects mainly depends on the steric and polar effects [142-144]. Based on the 13C NMR spectrum of vinylcyclohexane at low temperature, Buchanan observed the low frequency shifts in 85a relative to the equatorial counterpart 85b [145]. Based on the 13C NMR spectrum of various di-and tri-methylcyclohexanes, Dalling and Grant [146] observed an axial methyl group shifts the resonance of C(2), C(3) and C(4) at 1.40, 5.41 and 6.37 ppm and the corresponding resonance shifts for an equatorial methyl group at 5.96, 9.03 and 0.05 ppm, respectively. The shielding by an axial methyl group relative to an equatorial methyl group has been ascribed to steric interactions [142]. Furthermore, The 13C NMR data of 4 hydroxypiperidines results indicate that substituent effects are markedly influenced by steric interaction. Eliel et al. [147] study on à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ §-effect of heteroatoms in heteracyclohexanes 86a-86d provide evidence that the à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ §-carbon located anti to a second-row heteroatom (X=O; NH) resonates at significantly lower frequency than the analogo us carbon anti to a methylene group or a third-row heteroatom. Pandiarajan et al. [13] suggested a method of assigning the configuration of a sub ­stituent in saturated six–membered ring compounds, existing in chair conformation, from 13C chemical shift of a single epimer. Furthermore, the influence of the nearby substituents on the substituent parameters of equatorial methyl, gem-dimethyl, and equatorial and axial hydroxyl groups in several six-membered ring compounds 87a-87g has been suggested by Pandiarajan et al [13]. The magnitude of the à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ ¡ effect of a particular substituent is significantly reduced by a nearby substituent and the magnitude of the à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ ¡ effect decreases as the number of gauche interactions increases. Though, the à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ ¢ and à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ § effects are not influenced by the nearby substituents [13]. Nuclear Overhauser effect (nOe) The change in intensity of one NMR resonance that occurs when another is saturated is known as the nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE). NOE arises from dipole–dipole cross-relaxation between nuclei, and its usefulness. The strength of a given NOE enhancement is approximately correlated with internuclear separation (actually r−6 where r is the internuclear distance). However, the NOE also depends on other factors such as molecular motions [148]. In small molecules in solution, the NOE is positive and causes affected resonances to increase in intensity. NOE for small molecules is generally measured using one-dimensional experiments. In small molecules, NOE determins particular stereochemical relationships, such as substitution or ring fusion patterns in largely rigid systems. The NOE is negative for larger molecules and cause affected resonances decrease in intensity. NOE for larger molecules is usually measured using the two-dimensional NOESY experiment or one of its multidimensional variants. Using the NOE to Development of three-dimensional structural information using NOE generally depends on interpretation of an overlapping, redundant network of enhancements, rather than on calibrating precisely the distance dependence of individual enhancements. NOE determine accurate three-dimensional solution structures of biomacromoleculs such as DNA, RNA, or other proteins [149]. A spin-excited nucleus is known to transfer its spin energy to that of an adjacent nucleus resulting in spin relaxation. The efficiency of energy transfer is directly related to the distance between the two nuclei. The nOe grosses advantage of the spin energy transfer [149]. The nOe decreases as the inverse of the sixth power of the distance between the protons. An interesting application of nOe to a structural problem has been described by Hunter et al. [150] When styrene is polymerized in the presence of 4-methoxyphenol, in addition to the polymer, a 1:1 adduct is obtained by the addition of a styrene molecule to 4-methoxyphenol. However, the question of whether the addition occurs at C-2 or C-3 could not be answered from either the 1H or 13C NMR spectrum. The nOe experiment provided a decision in favour of structure 88. Irradiating the OCH3 resonance gave an increase in the intensities of the signals of the ring protons HA and HB. From this it is obvious that both these protons are ortho to the OCH3 group. In contrast the signal of the third ring proton HC showed a negative nOe. This is a case of an indirect nOe in a multi spin system. In further, nOe experiment it was shown that saturating the OH resonance increased the intensity of the HC signal, providing additional evidence for structure 88. TWO-DIMENSIONAL NMR SPECTROSCOPY COSY, a homonuclear 2D NMR correlation spectroscopy, correlates chemical shift of two hydrogen nuclei located on two different carbons that are separated by a single bond via j coupling. Thus it detects the chemical shift for hydrogen’s on both F1 and F2 axis. The most important two-dimensional NMR spectra show either 1h vs 1h or 1h vs 13c chemical shift correlations [126,127]. Here, we attempt to discuss about the some of the important types of 2-D experiments. Principle In 2D-NMR, the structural information are obtained from the interactions between two nuclei, either through the bonds which connect them (J-coupling interaction) or directly through space (NOE interaction). These interactions occur at a time by irradiating one resonance in the proton spectrum (either during the relaxation delay or during acquisition) and provide the effect on the intensity or coupling pattern of another resonance. 2D NMR essentially allows us to irradiate all of the chemical shifts in one experiment and gives us a matrix or two-dimensional map of all of the affected nuclei. All possible pairs of nuclei in the sample processed at the same time [128,129]. The basic steps in 2D experiment are as follows. 1. Preparation: Excite nucleus A, creating magnetization in the x-y plane 2. Evolution: Measure the chemical shift of nucleus A. 3. Mixing: Transfer magnetization from nucleus A to nucleus B (via J or NOE). 4. Detection: Measure the chemical shift of nucleus B. Preparation and Evolution: A 90o pulse excites all of the sample nuclei simultaneously. Detection is simply recording an FID and finding the frequency of nucleus B by Fourier transformation. To get a second dimension, we have to measure the chemical shift of nucleus A before it passes its magnetization to nucleus B. This is accomplished by simply waiting a period of time (called t1, the evolution period) and letting the nucleus A magnetization rotate in the x-y plane. The experiment is repeated many times over (for example, 512 times), recording the FID each time with the delay time t1 incremented by a fixed amount. The time course of the nucleus A magnetization as a function of t1 (determined by its effect on the final FID) is used to define how fast it rotates and thus its chemical shift. Mixing is a combination of RF pulses and/or delay periods which induce the magnetization to jump from A to B as a result of either a J coupling or an NOE interaction (close proximity in space). Di fferent 2D experiments (e.g., NOESY, COSY, HETCOR, etc.) differ primarily in the mixing sequence, since in each one we are trying to define the relationship between A and B within the molecule in a different way [128,129].

Monday, August 19, 2019

America Must Awake from the Nightmare of the Past to the Light of a New

America Must Awake from the Nightmare of the Past to the Light of a New Day Nostalgia is America's fatal disease. We love to "go back," to talk of the good old days, to wish we could return to an era forever gone. This rhetoric that warms our hearts, though, is, ironically, the impetus for our national self-destruction. Nostalgia valorizes a past that never was, casts a dark shadow of distortion across the present, and prevents us from projecting a viable, sincere vision of a better future. When we, as a nation, say we want to go back to a time past, that's very often what happens, for such talk sends us into a regressive downward spiral that prevents critical social progress in America. The American political scene is shot through with the rhetoric of nostalgia. A growing movement in the United States, led by conservative and neoconservative politicians, scholars and spokespeople, heralds a return to an America they believe has died in the tumult of recent social change. This America, they say, was one where we all worked hard and took care of our own. It was a harmonious place where everyone, from presidents to janitors, shared common values on community, family, government, and life. We need the American Dream back, the rhetoric goes. Way back when, with some elbow grease and a little ingenuity, everyone could have a house in the suburbs and a new white dress for their daughter on Easter Sunday. Enough of this social chaos, where everyone complains about everything, and they're all looking for a free handout from the government. We need to go back to when things were right_to when fair was fair, everyone believed in the family, and people had their heads on straight. Sounds nice, doesn't it?! ... ...edom_beyond that which any peoples have ever before experienced. This chaos is difficult and always challenging, and leaves us with nothing to hold onto. The answer to these challenges, though, is not to turn in this chaos for a new white dress and a home in the suburbs. Rather, we must create a new color of virtue, find a new place of hope. We need not out of fear go back to our past, as American nostalgia tells us to. We must shed our fears and strive for a new order, one forged in chaos and grounded in freedom. New cultural and political norms, on structures from family to government, are waiting to be born, and it is our job to create and nurture them. It is time to lay our fear of the unknown aside and jump headlong into the darkness of the future. Only then can we hope to someday awake from the nightmare of the past to the light of a new day.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Should College Athletes Be Paid? Essay -- NCAA, student athlete, sport

Today there are over 450,000 college athletes and the National College Athletics Association (NCAA) faces a difficult decision on whether or not college athletes should be paid. Many people believe that they should and many believe they should not. There are several benefits that college’s athletes receive for being a student athlete. Why should they receive even more benefits than their scholarship and numerous perks? Today, most college athletes receive a scholarship to pay for a portion or sometimes all of one’s college tuition. So, what does a scholarship cover? According to an article written by Tyson Hartnett, â€Å"A $25,000 scholarship covers the basics, university fees, tuition, housing, a meal-plan and textbooks.† But most scholarships given to college athletes are not full rides. According to US News, in 2010, the average scholarship given to a college athlete was worth $10,400. Even with this amount, many college athletes are not granted a scholarship and have to pay for college themselves. Yes, college athletes with scholarship money are still in need of money to have in their pockets: they need personal money for gas, food, clothing, and other things that a college student may need. Paying these athletes may lessen the stress they have dealing with a job during the off-season. Unlike a student going to college with an academic scholarship, a college athlete on an athletic scholarship does not have the time for a job with workouts, classes, practice, and study time that is required. But if you compare a student athlete to just a regular student, the athlete still receives many benefits. Several of the Division I college athletes are always being looked at by their respective professional leagues. There are not re... ...ig-money-in-college-sports-disappears.(accessed December 10, 2013). Montopoli, Brian. Kevin Ware Injury Could Put Scholarship at Risk. April 1, 2013. December 7, 2013). Brynelson, Troy. For All the Money College Sports Teams Bring In, Should Student Athletes Be Paid. October 28, 2013. December 7, 2013). Rosenfeld, Evan, and Scarlett McCourt. Opposing Views: Should NCAA Athletes Be Paid? September 17, 2013. (accessed December 7, 2013). Jacobson, Robert. Sports in America: Recreation, Business, Education, and Controversy. Wylie, TX: Information Plus, 2006.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Arms and the Man Essay

G. B. Saw’s Freedom actually is one of the series of radio talks delivered in 1935 on the B. B. C. As it was intended for the larger circles in their capacity as listeners, the lecture seems to be free from theoretical jargons. But Shaw can be very much deceptive in what he says. For, behind his homour lies the satire of the contemporary social condition. Not only that, his simple talk was actually a denunciation of the conventional and capitalist view of freedom. Politically Shaw conformed to democratic socialism, a variant of Marxism, according to which the society should try to reach the socialist political condition gradually by the democratic means. The concept of freedom, which Shaw satirises, was the fundamental principle of Enlightenment, and he does so because in a capitalist society, according to the Marxian view, freedom of the individual can never be realised. Shaw begins the essay with the proposition that a person can be called completely free in such a condition, in which he will be able to â€Å" do what he likes, when he likes, and where he likes, or do nothing at all if he prefers it†. He firmly denies the possibility of the existence of such a person as human beings are all slaves to nature: â€Å"†¦we must all sleep for one third of our lifetime__ wash and dress and undress__ we must spend a couple of hours eating and drinking__ we must spend nearly as much in getting about from one place to place. † From this funny yet inexorable condition of human life, Shaw very cleverly moves on to the fact that some of the â€Å"natural jobs† can be placed on others’ shoulders: â€Å"What you do to a horse or a bee, you can do to a man or woman or child†¦sort†. With this Shaw, however, comes to the immediate social and political condition of the time, in which the concept of freedom __ derived from the grand idealistic project of the Enlightenment, and nationalistic bias produced by the First World War __ was being glorified and used by the upper class as a means to achieving their self-interests. According to Shaw the farce of the democratic system in a capitalist state lies in the fact that â€Å"most actual governments†¦enforce your slavery and call it freedom†. But the citizens of the state continue to be duped by the system instead of rising to protest. Shaw terms this unequal relationship â€Å"the unnatural slavery of man to man†. Shaw points out an important difference between the â€Å"natural slavery of man to Nature and the unnatural slavery of man to man†. According to him, the first, though unavoidable, provides pleasure after its fulfilment; for instance, if nature forces us to drink, she makes drinking pleasant. The same is true of eating, drinking, sleeping and other activities. Shaw introduces this difference and cites examples more importantly to explain the evils of the former in more acute terms. He refers to few thinkers like Karl Marx and Thomas Moore, who denounced this slavery and tried to abolish it. At this point his explanation of the capitalist mechanism, that is, the means by which the system tries to dupe people and establish, legitimize and perpetuate itself approaches the ideological theories of Althusser and Gramsci. â€Å"Ideology represents†, Althusser tells us, â€Å"the imaginary relationship of individuals to their real condition of existence. He points out that there are found a number of ideologies – namely, religious ideology, ethical ideology, legal ideology, political ideology – all of which operate invisibly in the superstructure. Shaw strikes at the very root when he says, â€Å"Naturally the master class, through its parliaments and schools and newspapers, makes the most desperate efforts to prevent us fro m realizing our slavery. † He explains historically how the British capitalist system has established itself by propagating the so-called glorious events as the Magna Charta, the defeat of the Spanish Armada and Napoleon. Then he explains how â€Å"ideological apparatuses†, to quote Althusser, manipulate the common mass to cast votes in favour of the capitalist leaders. What is more alarmingly effective, according to him, is the educational system, which operates in the superstructure and â€Å"ends in deluding the master class much more completely†. Thus Shaw explains the difference between two kinds of slavery and conclusively tells the listeners/readers: â€Å"Wipe out from yours dreams of freedom the hope of being able to do as you please all the time. For, according to him, people have to remain occupied doing the natural slavery for at least twelve hours a day, while their unnatural slavery is controlled and regulated by the legal and administrative system of the country. Character of Louka in Arms and the Man Shaw conceived of Louka as a strong willed woman, necessary for his dramatic purpose of exposing the vanity of the upper-class and the political purpose of showing the socia list principle of showing equality among individuals in a society. It must be said that it was daring attempt on Shaw’s part to lead and raise a maidservant to the status of an aristocratic lady. But he does not do this as a kind of poetic justice or as a matter of mercy; he makes her capable of realizing her aims and object by her worth as a human being and by her strong will power. In the beginning of the play Louka is presented as a maid-servant having some sort of tension with the lady she serves. She behaves in defiant manners and her physical movements, gestures and postures produce the impression of haughtiness and discontent. The audience ascribes this to typical feminine jealousy of a servant for the lady of the same age, but in Act II they understand that she is Raina’s rival in love and is eyeing something above her position. Her confidence is generated from some of the secrets she knows about the ladies of the house. Always on the lookout for those sorts of things, she discovers a terrible truth about the fugitive in Raina’s chamber at night and keeps it for use in future. In Act II Louka is given a loud voice justifying her position. While being instructed threateningly by the middle-aged maid servant Nicola, she scornfully rejects his advice and brands him as a person with â€Å"the soul of a servant†. From Nicola, however, we come to know the predicament of Louka and her father â€Å"on his little farm†. Shaw here brings out the conflicts between rich and the poor, fuming in the backyard of patriotism and nationalism. Shaw makes this explicit by making Nicola fully aware of the effects any confrontation with the aristocracy will bring about. It is not that Louka is not conscious of this; in fact, her defiance of the upper-class people can be ascribed to the angst deposited in her. But while Nicola chooses to reap profit by serving the upper-class and thereby cashing on their weaknesses, Louka resorts to using her youth and feminine skills backed up by her will-power to trap an upper-class gentleman. In Act II Louka employs her youth and charms when she finds Sergius posing as a playboy. From the familiarity of their conversation we can understand that this is not the first time that Sergius engages himself in relaxation from the pressure of higher love† for Raina. As soon as Louka detects his susceptibility or vulnerability, she proceeds to break Raina’s pose of higher love by informing him of the presence of another man in her chamber at night. She does this in order to bring her down to her level of an ordinary human being before Sergius. Even she goes to the extent of saying â€Å"I am worth six of her†, meaning that she is capable of serving or satisfying the six different persons in Sergius, which Raina, according to her, is not capable of. But it would be an injustice to the character if we say that Louka uses only her youthful charms; we find her possessing subtle power of observation, by which she can surely foretell Raina’s move away from Sergius in the case of the fugitive’s return. No other person, including Raina could have this kind anticipation because Louka observes her from a pragmatic position: â€Å"I know the difference between the sort of manner you and she put on before one another and the real manner. Thus she creates agitations in Sergius’s mind quite consciously and deliberately in order that she may win him away by exposing both of them. But since she is intelligent enough to anticipate that he will not believe her unless and until he discovers the truth himself, she lets him out to find the rest of the truth. In Act III Louka enters the stage with her usual â€Å"bold free gait† with the marked difference that her left sleeve is â€Å"looped up to the shoulder with a br ooch, shewing her naked arm, with a broad gilt bracelet covering the bruise†. She does this intentionally in order to remind Sergius of the mark he made on her arm, and perhaps to display proudly the mark as a gift of love in a sort of masochistic exhibitionism. Nicola, as a man with practical wisdom can sense something wrong with her, and that is why he proceeds to warn her about her unusual fashion. Here once again she reiterates her contempt for his servile mentality and refuses to accept 10 levas from him as share of the bribes. Her basic independent nature is to be found in the following words: â€Å"You were born to be a servant. I was not. When you set up your shop you will be everybody’s servant instead of somebody’s servant. † She demonstrates the place she is eying to reach at by seating herself ‘regally’ in Sergius’s chair, an act which the audience notice with surprise and amusement. As Nicola understands her and humbly makes way for Sergius, she once again attracts Sergius now with the mark of bruise, which she uses as a kind of bait for him. When Sergius tries to compensate for the bruise by offering her an amorous favor, she rejects it straight and tries to make him understand that she wants more. She entangles him in a sort of emotional cheating with the protestation of the courage she can show in the case of realizing her true love: â€Å"If I loved you, though you would be as far beneath me as I am beneath you, I would dare to be the equal of my inferior. † Here by implication of the logic Louka wants him to come out of the class-barrier and accept her on equal terms. When Sergius expresses his inability and insults her by making a comparison between Raina and her in terms of the difference between heaven and earth, she returns this and the charge of her being jealous of Raina with a bold assertion: â€Å"I have no reason to be. She will never marry you. The man I told you of has come back. She will marry the Swiss. † Thus she succeeds in creation an emotional storm in his mind and in making him confess: â€Å"If I choose to love you, I dare marry you in spite of all Bulgaria. † In true chivalric fashion he even pronounces an oath, which she readily jumps upon to win him away in the next encounter. In the final encounter with Sergius Louka gathers all her strength of mind and risks being caught up in eavesdropping. However, quite unexpectedly she finds a supporter in Bluntschli, who defends her act by saying that he too once committed this kind of act as his â€Å"life was at stake†. Louka takes the cue from him and boldly declares her â€Å"love was at stake†. At this point we find Raina insulting her from her supposed social superiority and thus quite unknowingly provoking her to disclose the truth about her chocolate cream soldier. Louka is further insulted after the discovery of the â€Å"chocolate cream soldier†, and she turns the situation in her favor by forcing Sergius to apologize to her. As he still clings to his false heroic ideals, he apologises and falls motionless in her trap. In fine, we can say that through the presentation of Louka, Shaw illustrates once again the triumph of women in the chase of the men of their desire. There may be perhaps another reason: she is necessary as the woman for Sergius because she can balance the excess of romantic ideas and impractical dreams in him. But the audience cannot be sure of her capacity; for, immediately after becoming Major Sergius Saran off’s â€Å"affianced bride†, she addresses the lady she was serving by her name and tries to scandalize Raina by openly expressing her doubt of the latter’s being â€Å"fonder of him than Sergius†. The audience and more particularly the readers can take note of the fact that she does not utter a single word after that. She remains speechless even at the climax of the action when the chocolate cream soldier becomes Raina’s man amidst many revelations and amazements.

Iraq or its capital of Baghdad was not accustomed to “freedom”

â€Å"For, in truth, there is no sure way of holding other than by destroying, and whoever becomes master of a City accustomed to live in freedom and does not destroy it, may reckon on being destroyed by it† (Machiavelli: 11).   â€Å"Hence we may learn the lesson that on seizing a state, the usurper should make haste to inflict what injuries he must, at a stroke, that he may not have to renew them daily, but be able by their discontinuation to reassure men’s minds, and afterwards win them over by benefits†Ã‚   (23). While it can hardly be argued that Iraq or its capital of Baghdad, which reflects the divisions of Iraq, was accustomed to â€Å"freedom† before the American invasion, it at least enjoyed freedom from foreign occupation.   The above quote is relevant to the American experience in Iraq because, pursuant to the failure to destroy the enemy in the opening stages of the war, the American mission is in serious risk of being destroyed by that very enemy, years after taking nominal â€Å"control† over Iraq. A failure to pacify restive Sunni centers such as Fallujah, Ramadi, and Mosul during or immediately after the initial invasion, a failure to â€Å"destroy† in Machiavelli’s parlance, left the American occupation armies among its enemies rather than victorious over them.   This negligence, and the willingness to bypass centers of resistance on the drive to Baghdad rather than to subdue them, led directly to the next stage of failure, and the next piece of relevant advice from The Prince. â€Å"If, however, the newly acquired City or Province has been accustomed to live under a Prince, and his line is extinguished, it will be impossible for the citizens, used, on the one hand, to obey, and deprived, on the other, of their old ruler, to agree to choose a leader from among themselves†Ã‚   (11-12). The Prince in this scenario, of course, is Saddam Hussein; Hussein’s â€Å"line† was both biological, in the form of his sons Uday and Qusay, and political, in the form of the brutal and brilliantly organized Ba’ath Party.   The United States willingly destroyed the heart, brain, and nerve center of the Iraqi state and came with no workable plan to replace them.   It should hardly have come as any surprise, bearing all of this in mind, that the Iraqi people have been unable to come to any sort of consensus on what form their new government should take.   The entire gamble of the Iraq War, from the perspective of the Bush administration, hinged on the hope that Machiavelli was wrong, the hope that citizens deprived of a powerful prince would be able to peaceably choose a new leader from among themselves. A further failure of the American enterprise in Iraq has been the inability to instill a sense of loyalty for the new Iraqi government and army among a critical mass of the Iraqi people.   Loyalty should not be taken to imply affection, but merely respect and deference.   Employing historically brutal methods, Saddam Hussein garnered a certain sense of â€Å"loyalty† from the Iraqi people.   The new Iraq government, however, is not recognized by most Iraqis as the legitimate or competent representation of the Iraqi state; instead, a slew of militias and insurgent groups command far more loyalty on the street than do the national institutions sponsored and supported by the United States. The first rule of any government, democratic or not, is the rule of â€Å"one gun†.   In other words, the state must be perceived to be the only legitimate employer of violence.   That is most decidedly not the case in post-invasion Iraq.   As Machiavelli wrote, â€Å"a wise Prince should devise means whereby his subjects may at all times, whether favourable or adverse, feel the need of the State and of him, and then they will always be faithful to him†Ã‚   (26). The legitimacy and the staying power of the Iraqi government is the most important factor of the American mission in Iraq, since the emergence of an openly anti-American government would dissolve any theoretical benefit from the original invasion.   The trouble is that a self-perpetuating cycle is at work; the Iraqi government likely cannot survive without American military protection, yet that very protection ensures that the Iraqi government will never be genuinely legitimate in the eyes of its citizens.   â€Å"Mercenaries and auxiliaries are at once useless and dangerous, and he who holds his State by means of mercenary troops can never be solidly or securely seated†Ã‚   (31). In a country as divided by clan and ethnicity and religious sect as Iraq is, an invading army must have a solid appraisal of what groups it must count as allies in order to effectively govern the country.   Several of the decisions taken by the American proconsul, Jerry Bremer, imply that this appraisal was either never made or was horribly blundered.   Two such decisions come to mind.   Firstly, the Iraqi army was disbanded and its soldiers and officers were sent home without any way of supporting their families but with their weapons.   Secondly, the Ba’ath Party was dissolved, and a massive proportion of its members were excluded from meaningful participation in the new Iraq. Due to the nature of the Iraqi military, especially its officer corps, and the Ba’ath party, these decisions effectively made enemies of the Sunni minority in Iraq, which included the most militarily competent, technocratic, educated, secular, and Western-oriented elements of the society.   The very Iraqis, in other words, who could bring either the greatest harm or the greatest aid to the American occupation.   â€Å"As Princes cannot escape being hated by some, they should, in the first place, endeavor not to be hated by a class; failing in which, they must do all they can to escape the hatred of that class which is the stronger†Ã‚   (51). After dismissing the Iraqi army, and thereby humiliating a large portion of the population, it became evident that the American occupation could never succeed without an Iraqi army, as there were not nearly enough American soldiers to pacify Iraq.   The Americans therefore began training and arming a new Iraqi army, but the damage had been done.   By dismissing the nearest thing to a truly â€Å"national† institution in Ba’athist Iraq, the Americans proved their distrust of the Iraqi people.   It was therefore inevitable that the new, American-backed Iraqi army would be tainted as occupation collaborators by the population and occasionally as insurgent collaborators by the Americans. Most experts now point to the decision to disband the Iraqi army without pay and with weapons was the single biggest blunder that the United States made in Iraq.   This single decision instantly created a vast class of humiliated, impoverished, idle, and armed young men, which essentially guaranteed the emergence of an insurgency.   â€Å"By disarming, you at once giver offence, since you show your subjects that you distrust them, either as doubting their courage, or as doubting their fidelity, each of which imputations begets hatred against you†Ã‚   (56). It seems unreal now, but it is important to note that there was no insurgency in the early months of the American occupation; it seems now that the Iraqi people were giving the Americans a chance to make clear their true motives and intentions.   One wonders what may have happened had the Iraqi army been called upon by the American army to join together in rebuilding and securing Iraq, a goal that both groups shared.   One wonders what may have happened had thousands of mid-level Ba’athist technocrats been allowed to keep their jobs, such as running electrical grids, hospitals, and water purification plants.   One wonders indeed. The above quotes and examples are all variations of one unifying theme; the American errors in Iraq have been driven by a failure to recognize its natural allies, to preempt the emergence of natural enemies, and to win the trust and loyalty of the local population.   Each of these necessities was articulated in The Prince, and one wonders if George W. Bush and Donald Rumsfeld ever read the book. Works Cited Machiavelli, Niccolo.   The Prince.   New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1992.