Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Diviersity In Families Essays - Pedagogy, Teaching,

Diviersity In Families Celebrating Families Lesson Plan 1. Overview This lesson, which is intended for a first grade classroom, and is approximately 40 minutes in length, will deal with diverse families. I will read the book to the students, and then we will discuss the different types of families, and how each one of our families is different. The purpose is to show each child that there are many families like and unlike theirs; and that this is socially acceptable. The concepts and themes to be taught are interdependence, identity, and culture. 2. New York State Learning Standards Social Studies/Standard 1/Elementary/Strand 2/gather and?and community 3. Objectives At the conclusion of this lesson: ? Students will appreciate diverse families. (Affective) ? Students will understand that every family is unique and different. (Cognitive) ? Students will be prepared to accurately trace an immediate family map. (Psychomotor) 4. Materials Teacher's Materials 1. Social studies resource guide with core curriculum. 1999. p. 22. 2. NYS learning standards for social studies. 1996. p.2. 3. Celebrating Families. Rosemarie Hausherr. 1997. Student Materials 4. Pen or Pencil 5. Graffiti Board 6. My Family information sheet 5. Procedure a. Anticipatory Set Can anyone tell me what a family is? (Knowledge) How can families be different? We are going to learn about families today; families like yours, families that are different than yours. b. Procedure 1. Introduce the book Celebrating Families. 2. Read the book to the entire class. Be sure to show all of the pictures. This is important. 3. When finished with the book, split the class into three groups. 4. These groups will each have a graffiti board to write on. Have them write about some of these questions, along with any other interesting facts or notes about families: ? List the members of your family (Knowledge). ? Explain what your families do together (Comprehension). ? Relate your families to others (Application). ? Study the families in the book; write how your family is different from one of the families (Analysis). ? Create a family that you would like to be in when you grow up (Synthesis) ? Write about how you accept one of the families in the book (Evaluation). 5. Share each group's graffiti board. Give five minutes for the students to observe what was written 6. Hang the graffiti boards on the wall. Keep them up until our unit on families are finished. c. Closure What have we learned about families today? (Evaluation) We are going to have an exciting project for homework tonight. 6. Evaluation ? Did the students work together effectively? ? Did the students understand that families are different? ? Did the students celebrate family diversity? ? Did the students reach the goals objectives? 7. Extended Assignment Homework: Take home the My Family information sheet. Have your parents help you get the names of everyone in your family. Have your parents read the directions at the top of the page. We will put together family trees in the next class. Bibliography 1. Social studies resource guide with core curriculum. 1999. p. 22. 2. NYS learning standards for social studies. 1996. p.2. 3. Celebrating Families. Rosemarie Hausherr. 1997. Education

Saturday, November 23, 2019

The French Verb Conjugations of Bouger (to Move)

The French Verb Conjugations of Bouger (to Move) The French verb  bouger  is one of the many ways to say to move. It is a rather easy verb to conjugate, though there is a spelling change that you will want to watch out for. The Many Ways to Say to Move in French The English to move can take on many different meanings depending on the context. It can mean to move something, to move your home or yourself, or even to move someone emotionally. In French, there is a separate verb for all of these instances and some are rather specific. The subject of this lesson is bouger. Specifically, this means to move as in to budge, stir, or shift. Explore these other French verbs and make sure you choose the correct to move to relay your true meaning. dà ©mà ©nager  - to move housetransporter - to transportremuer and à ©mouvoir - to disturb or stirmarcher - to walkjouer - to playdescendre - to descendavancer - to advanceprogresser - to progressinciter - to encourage The Spelling Changes in Conjugating  Bouger Bouger  is a  spelling change verb. Its an easy one to conjugate when you understand how and why the spelling changes. Typically, in French verbs that end in -er, the  nous  present tense (for example) would drop the -er  and add -ons. If we did that with a word that ends with -ger, the G would have a hard sound. We really want to retain that soft G pronunciation, so an E is added before the O or an A. This applies to a few of the conjugations below. Also, all verbs that end in -ger  follow this rule. The Simple Conjugations of  Bouger Beyond that minor spelling change,  bouger  is a relatively straightforward verb to conjugate. This is required so the verb matches the subject and the present, future, or past tense. The chart will help you learn the  bouger  conjugations. Pair the subject pronoun the  je, tu, nous, etc. with the proper tense. For instance, I move is je bouge and we will move is nous bougerons. Subject Present Future Imperfect je bouge bougerai bougeais tu bouges bougeras bougeais il bouge bougera bougeait nous bougeons bougerons bougions vous bougez bougerez bougiez ils bougent bougeront bougeaient The Present Participle of  Bouger The  present participle  of bouger  is bougeant. While we would normally drop the E when adding the -ant  ending, this is another instance of that necessary spelling change.   Not only is this a verb, but it can act as an adjective, gerund, or noun when needed. The Passà © Composà © of  Bouger Other than the imperfect, you can also express the past tense of  bouger  using the  passà © composà ©. To do so, you must conjugate  avoir, which is an  auxiliary or helping  verb. You will also use the  past participle  of bougà ©. With those two elements, the conjugation is easy. For I moved, the French is jai bougà © and we moved is  nous avons bougà ©. More  Bouger Conjugations The present, future, and past tense conjugations should be the focus of your French studies at first. As you progress, you may also find the following conjugations useful. The subjunctive and conditional are used when the act of moving is in some way questionable or dependent. The passà © simple and imperfect subjunctive are primarily reserved for writing. Subject Subjunctive Conditional Pass Simple Imperfect Subjunctive je bouge bougerais bougeai bougeasse tu bouges bougerais bougeas bougeasses il bouge bougerait bougea bouget nous bougions bougerions bougemes bougeassions vous bougiez bougeriez bougetes bougeassiez ils bougent bougeraient bougrent bougeassent To express  bouger  in short, assertive commands or requests you will use the imperative verb form. When doing so, there is no need to include the subject pronoun as it is implied in the verb. Instead of nous bougeons, you can simplify it to bougeons. Imperative (tu)                 bouge (nous)        Ã‚  bougeons (vous)           bougez

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Why video games are violent Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Why video games are violent - Essay Example In order to answer this question, there are different angles from which the issue can be observed indicating the difference levels of the presence and absence of violence in video games. Video games are violent because they offer an alternative form through which one can â€Å"†¦absolve themselves of guilt or justify certain morally questionable acts†¦Ã¢â‚¬  whereby video game players can release their inner feelings of violence that cannot be directed towards other people in the real world (Schaffer). With this in mind, video games are violent because they are virtual worlds in which there are no consequences for engaging in whatever violent acts that one pleases (Videogame Addiction). Therefore, video games are violent to provide a safe proving ground in which violent behavior can be virtualized and enacted in a safe manner that cannot harm anyone, the player included. Arguments are that this is the main reason to rid real life situations of potential acts of violence t hat may lead to severe consequences such as death (Schaffer).

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Project Management Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Project Management - Term Paper Example In the case of the first question, two good sample projects would be the automation of a marketing firm and creating an antivirus product for personal and business use. When it comes to software life cycle, the waterfall model fits the automation system for a marketing firm as it expands its services online.2 Through its entirely programmed sales page, sales presentation and email response to its target market, it only requires the plan and specifications, program design, application, validation, installation and maintenance. On the other hand, antivirus program needs agile development model as the testing, feedbacks and upgrades must be frequent as the viruses easily change and new ones are created by the hour. When it comes to the role of the project manager, he needs to put more efforts on the antivirus program which needs more effort than the automated marketing system which may not need any upgrade. 2. The second question deals with conflict. Conflict pertains to any clash betwe en ideas and may become personal as well. Although people at work must remain as objective as possible, sometimes conflict goes out of bounds and the people involved attack one another personally. It may develop early on or late in the project. An early conflict may take in the form of an idea to make the use of resources more efficient. To solve that, people must consider the advantages and disadvantages and come into agreement by integrating some ideas from both parties.3 When it comes to late conflict, it may include solutions to improve the software. Again, people may combine their ideas for the betterment. 3. The third would deal with Pareto Principle. The principle indicates that 80% of the results come from 20% of the causes. The very meaning laid down by Pareto can be dubbed as 80-20 Rule. In the context of a project manager, he can deal with it as a disturbance handler. He must be able to figure out the 20% of the causes that can bring the 80% of the results so he can direc t his staffs to focus on the 20%. For examples, if they get errors on their software, they must identify the 80% of the bugs and get to know the 20% of the codes that may bring about the majority of the bugs.4 He may develop plans to make the whole search for the bug origin in a systematic way. 4. The fourth question deals with four qualities needed for the criteria in choosing a good model. Money required, time needed, manpower required and ease of use or practicality. Money is needed as anything can be purchased by money especially the needed resources. Time required is necessary also since it dictates the span in terms of days, weeks or months to accomplish the project. Manpower needed is also important as it brings about the necessary staffs to work on the project and ease of use talks about the program being user-friendly.5 5. Question five deals with payback and earned value. The former pertains to the time needed to receive the money invested while the latter pertains to the ability of the project manager to check the project performance and evaluate the current accomplishments and compared them with the objectives or desired results.6 6. The last question depends upon the model made by Noland regarding the process maturity. It pertains to the degree of performance at its maximum possibility. The five stages include

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Presentation Of The Greek Society Essay Example for Free

Presentation Of The Greek Society Essay One of the prolific poets that ever emerged from Greece is Homer. Not only was he known for his poetic exploits, his works are one of the works that gave an idea of what life was like in Ancient Greece. Early philosophers of the Ionian school found his work intriguing and His work was criticized by Thales. For the purpose of this essay, focus will be drawn on one of his works, Iliad. It is impossible to speak of Greek literature without considering Iliad. Iliad is not just a literary piece; it gives an account of the wars and conquests in Ancient Greece. It informs us about of the various doctrines held by the Greeks and how they conceive of a lot of things. The work is written in a prose form and is divided into Books from I to XXIV. As seen from Iliad, the ancient Greek society was characterized with conquests and battles. There is the innate desire of men to engage other nations in war. It shows the lust of men for power and their thirst for fame and glory. There was also the belief in gods and spirits. The Greeks are depicted as set of people who believes and explains everything that happens to the as an act of the gods. When good things happen, it is so because the gods are happy with you. Hoverer, when things are going out of hand, it is conceived that the gods are angry. The poem also depicts the ancient society as a society that lives of men were not regarded. There was no room for pity because if a man was considered to be a coward if he allows feelings of compassion. Men are motivated by a sense of duty to their nation and they fight for the case they believe in. these people fought, shed their blood and gave their lives for what they believe in. it was a time that was characterized with battles and for a man to be honored, you have to be a soldier or someone who has gone to battle.

Friday, November 15, 2019

Malaysias Management of Resources

Malaysias Management of Resources 1.0 INTRODUCTION Economies can be defined as, thrifty management of resources, such as land, labour, capital and enterprenuership learned to practice economy in making out the household budget. In factors of production there are commodities or services used to produce goods and services. And also explores how people and society try to use resources available , which have many different uses, in order to produce different goods and distribute among people. According to economist Lionel Robbins who defined economics as The science which studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses. The primary factors facilitate production but neither become part of the product as raw materials. One of the factor of production is mainly called Land includes not only the site of production but natural resources above or below the soil. What is scarcity? Scarcity is a things that has some problems in economic having because of humans nature unlimited needs and wants. Humans were always wants more and more thats unlimited goals. This world has a limited resources which can be used. What will happened when all of the four factor of production is limited? Factor of productions is defined as the input that used in the production of goods or services in the attempt to make an economic profit and also production can be defined as the resources that required to generaton of goods and services. This resources are generally classifeid into four major groups which are land, labour, capital and enterprenuership. So what is land? One of the factor of production is mainly called land, includes not only the site of production but natural resources above or below the soil. Land is a natural resource that whose supply is generation by generation fixed. Land contains natural resources that a production of good and also a capital goods. Example of the natural resources in land is petroleum, coal, diamond, timber, gold and many more. If this land is became limited there are huge problem will this world faced, some of the problem is natural resources cannot be extracted or maybe become limited. Among this there a another factor of production is called capital, what is capital? Is that capital is important to our economy? Capital is a money. Capital played main role in this factor of production because the capital is helped we to buy the raw materials, machines, equipment, tools and many more. The next factor of production is labour. What is the meaning of labour? Labour is means the people is working for a wages. The size of a labour force can be determined by population of adult in a country. Labour consists of the both physical and mental abilities of the workers to work in a company or in a working place to get a wages. Lets say the labour has been limited, what will happened? They cannot produce goods and sevices, example like, if one companys labour is limited the production of product will stopped and will effect the company, because of this the economy will be effect. The last things in factor of production is entrepeurnership is a defined as a businessman, is a individual who uses all the resources effectively to run production. He should be risk taker and wiling to accept new challengers or wiling to accept lost or profits on their business. 1.2 WHAT IS SCARCITY? In other word for scarcity is means not enough resources. The main cause this scarcity is happened because of unlimited needs and wants of human. For an example just ask with the people out there would you like more luxury life most of them will answered Yes. People were looking foe more money for buy more goods and services. This problem not only carried by poor people its also to most wealthy people were include in this problem. In any time this world can be limited amount of goods and services such as for land when we compared Malaysia and Singapore, Malaysia has big land then Singapore, so the land is so limited to Singapore then Malaysia. In Singapore the singaporeans can built their own property like houses and more this is called scarcity. The example of capital became limited is to run one company he must have capital for the production if its limited there are dont have any company industry. Limitation of third factor of production is labour, for example if the labour became limited the are no one to work at companies, and the companies will not run any production. Lastly about enterprenuer, lets take that the enterprenuer is became limited what wiil happened, there are no new production of product, the procduction not run as planned and more. To outcome these factor of production problem, must tasks on the evidence of scarcity, the evidence of plenty and research why this problems were created. What is really the opportunity cost means? Opportunity cost is a cost of next best alternatives from all. CONCLUSION As a conclude, every country has it own resource, we must balanced the factor of production and if one of this factor of production land, capital, labour or enterprenuership is limited is must cause the growth of economic. If dont have land they cant built any company, if capital became limited we cant pay wages to labour, if labour became limited no workers in companies if enterprenuer no new product, so must balanced and protect our factor of production. QUESTION 2 Malaysia, a mixed economy attempts to combine the advantages of Free Enterprise System and the Central Command System. The price mechanism is allowed to operate but in some cases the price mechanism fails or works against public interest. Identify the ways by which the State can intervene to correct the defects. 1.1 INTRODUCTION Production, distribution, and consumption of good and service were a branches of economics in science. What is ecomomy system? Economy system is a planned organization and structure of production. Allocate of economic inputs, distribute of economic outputs and consumption of goods and services in an economy. Economy system are separated into three major economy thats named planned economy, mixed economy and lastly free market economy. There are three different types of organization economy plan that also very tight and some confortable and some of economy plan is very freedom. As I told the three economy system, this is first economy system called planned or command economy, this system is fully controlled by the goverment. There are no arguement or such things in that country because the country is very strict and on the mission and vision to achieve so when the country planned system the mission and vision will achieve more quickly. Free Market Economy is an system based on power of division of labour in which the prices of the goods and services are determined in a free prices system set by supply and demand and the decision taken by individual household and firms and with no goverment intervention. The price also as how much they produce. Mixed ecomony were controlled by partly goverment and partly through the market. 1.2 CONTENT In our Malaysia country is the mixed economic system. Mixed economy reflects the characteristics of both capitalism and socialism. In this mixed economy system there are all real world economies are mixture of the two system. In mixed economy goverment will intervention like some relative prises because the goods and inputs by taxing or subsiding them or by direct price controls. Most mixed economies also can be described as market economies with strong regulatory oversight, in addition to having a variety of government sponsored aspects. Government also must have the rights to control the price of products and services in our Malaysia country. Example of Malaysian government control item are like rice, oil, sugar, petrol, flour and more. SIRIM is a not goverment company but the goverment intervention because they have to know is th product is really good. Mixed economies as an economic ideal are supported by people of various political persuasions. Another example of Malaysian gover ment intervention in the market by pose tax on goods, for example goverment taxed on cigarretes, petrol, alcohol drinks and more. Conclusion As conclusion, Malaysian economic system is mixed economic system. Mixed economy reflects the characteristics of both capitalism and socialism. Malaysian government intervene in the economic in many ways such imposed tax og good, control the price of the product, make sure the price of the product is not high and many more.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Development of the Cardiovascular System in Vertebrate Embryos

The cardiovascular system is the first organ system to become fully functional in the vertebrate embryo and its development occurs in a similar way in all vertebrates. It is derived from angioblastic tissue, which arises from mesenchyme, an aggregation of mesenchymal cells derived from the mesodermal tissue of embryos. The main processes involved in the development of the embryonic cardiovascular system are Vasculogenesis, Angiogenesis, Hematopoiesis, Erythropoiesis and Heart Formation. All processes occur under the influence of stimuli from genes and paracrine factors, oligosaccharides, multifunctional cytokines and enzymes.Vasculogenesis and AngiogenesisTwo distinctive mechanisms, vasculogenesis and angiogenesis implement the formation of the vascular network in the embryo. Embryonic vasculogenesis gives rise to the heart and the primordial vascular plexus within the embryo and its surrounding membranes as the yolk sac circulation. In mammals, it occurs in parallel to hematopoiesis , the formation of blood cells. Vasculogenesis refers to the in situ differentiation and growth of new blood vessels from mesenchymal cells known as angioblasts which aggregate to form isolated angiogenic cell clusters known as blood islands (angiocysts) within the extra-embryonic and intra-embryonic mesoderm. Small cavities appear within these blood islands by the confluence of intercellular clefts.The peripheral cells within these blood islands flatten to form endothelial cells, triggered by the binding of the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) to the first of its two receptors, the VEGF-R2 (Flk1) protein, which is responsible for the differentiation of mesodermal cells into endothelial cells and the subsequent proliferation of the endothelial cells. The core cells give rise to blood cells (haematoblasts). The newly formed endothelial cells arrange themselves around the cavities in the blood islands, forming the primitive endothelium. Cellular vacuoles within the developing endothelial cells coalesce and fuse together without cytoplasmic mixing to forma the blood vessel lumen of the initial endothelial tube.Extracellular matrix deposition by fibroblasts promotes capillary-like tube formation under the influence of the binding of VEGF to its second receptor, VEGF-R1 (Flt1). This is followed by the interaction of the endothelial blood vessel with the supporting mesodermal cells. The Angiopoietin-1 growth factor binds to the Tie2 receptor tyrosine kinase on the cell membrane of the endothelial cells, allowing the blood vessel to recruit the peri-endothelial cells that will surround it as pericytes and the smooth muscle tissue of the blood vessel, thus maintaining the stability of the blood vessels.The growth and multiplication of this primordial vascular plexus occurs through the process of angiogenesis in which new blood vessels arise from pre-existing vascularity. This process requires the combination of two signals, Angiopoietin 2 and VEGF, in order t o promote the loosening of the support cells and the ability of newly exposed endothelial cells to multiply by budding and sprouting into new vessels. Replacement of Ang1 by Ang2 on the Tie2 receptor tyrosine kinase destabilizes the vessel integrity thus facilitating vessel sprouting in response to the VEGF signal. The new endothelial tubule then interacts with the surrounding mesenchymal cells in part as a response to Ang1 which acts on the endothelial cell Tie2 in order to trigger the association of the new tubule with the periendothelial cells.Hematopoiesis and ErythropoiesisBlood develops from endothelial cells (haematoblasts) by a process known as hematopoiesis initially in various parts of the embryonic primitive mesenchyme (yolk sac and allantois), and then in the liver and later on in the spleen, bone marrow and lymph nodes. In embryonic development it is known as primitive hematopoiesis. All blood cells develop from pluripotential stem cells committed to three, two or one h emopoietic differentiation pathways but morphologically undistinguishable. These pluripotent stem cells divide infrequently to generate either more pluripotent stem cells (self-renewal) or committed progenitor cells (colony-–forming cells, CFCs) which are irreversibly determined to produce only one or a few types of blood cells.These colony-forming cells are known as Lymphocyte Forming Colony (LCFC), Megakaryocyte Forming Colony (MCFC), Erythrocyte Forming Colony (ECFC) and Monocyte Granulocyte Forming Colony (MGFC). The progenitor cells are stimulated to proliferate by specific growth factors (colony-stimulating factors, CSFs) but progressively lose their capacity for division and develop into terminally differentiated blood cells which usually live for only a few days or weeks. Erythrocytes (red blood cells) develop by the process of erythropoiesis. In embryos, erythrocytes are nucleated and express embryonic globin chains.Heart FormationIn vertebrate embryos the heart tube , the earliest formed heart structure, arises in the heart field, an embryonic clustering of cells which arises soon after gastrulation. These early stages of development are almost identical among all vertebrates unlike the subsequent septation of the chambers and of the outflow tract which varies between species.The heart field is that region of the precardiac mesoderm that contains the cardiac progenitor cells (endocardial and myocardial precursor cells) and is competent in responding to inductive signals.Precardiac cells from the epiblast lateral to the primitive streak invaginate through the streak and migrate cranio-laterally to form part of the lateral plate. This pattern is maintained in the eventual anteroposterior placement of structures in the heart, with the most cranial cells contributing to the bulbus cordis at the extreme anterior end of the heart and the most caudal cells contributing to the sinoatrial region and the extreme posterior end.As mentioned above, the cell progeny of this region contributes to all layers of the heart tube (myocardium, endocardium and parietal pericardium), as well as to the endothelial cells in the vicinity of the heart. In the lateral plate the cells maintain their anteroposterior position.The lateral plate splits to form two epithelial layers, the somatic mesoderm (which also includes migratory precursors for limb musculature) and the splachnic mesoderm which remains an epithelial sheet and includes the cardiac precursors.The embryo then folds ventrally carrying the splachnic mesoderm with it and bringing it ventral to the foregut which is generated as the lateral folds meet in the ventral midline. The precursors of the endocardium are included in the splachnic mesoderm and begin to form clusters on the foregut side of the epithelial sheet.The heart fields fuse at the midline to form a primary heart tube, the process beginning cranially and proceeding caudally. This tubular heart consists of an outer myocardial man tle and an endocardial inner lining. Between these two concentric epithelial layers an acellular matrix, the cardiac jelly, is found. As the ventricular region of the heart begins to bend to the right (â€Å"cardiac looping†), the cardiac jelly disappears from the future major chambers of the heart (atria and ventricles) and begins to accumulate in the junction between the atria and ventricles (atrioventricular junction, AVJ) and in the developing outflow tract (OFT).This results in the formation of the endocardial cushion tissues in the AVJ which later contribute to the formation of AV (atrioventricular) septal structures and valves, septation of the OFT and formation of the semilunar valves of the aorta and pulmonary artery.The vertebrate heart tube is aligned along the antero-posterior axis. Arterial flow is directed from the ventricle at the anterior end of the heart, through the ventral aortic vessel and branchial arches and subsequently travels posteriorly to the dorsal vessel. Blood flow returns to the heart through the venous system to the atrium lying at the posterior end of the heart chamber.Formation of the Mammalian Embryonic Cardiovascular System1)   Formation of the primitive cardiovascular systema)   Extra-embryonic blood vesselsThe wall of the yolk sac mesenchyme proliferates and forms isolated cell clusters known as blood islands. Peripheral cells within these islands flatten and differentiate into endothelial cells in order to form endothelial tubes. Centrally- located cells develop into primitive blood cells (hematoblasts). Endothelial tubes approach and fuse with each other forming a primitive vascular network. This primitive endothelial network appears in the chorionic membrane and body stalk and connects to the vitelline circulation.b)   Intra-embryonic blood vesselsThe endothelial tube network appears in the intraembryonic mesenchyme to  form an intraembryonic endothelial   tube network. The intraembryonic and extra  e mbryonic tube networks connect to each other forming a diffuse endothelial   tube network which either fuses or disappears to form a primitive cardiovascular  system.2) Development of the HeartThe primitive cardiovascular system consists of the primary heart tube, formed from the fusion of the two bilateral heart fields of the precardiac mesoderm. The primary heart tube gives rise to the endocardium. Blood flows through this primitive heart tube in a cranial position. The mesenchyme surrounding the tube condenses to form the myoepicardial mantle (the future myocardium). Gelatinous connective tissue, the cardiac jelly, separates the myoepicardial mantle from the endothelial heart tube (the future endocardium).A series of constrictions (sulci) divides the heart into sections: the sinus venosus, in which the common cardinal veins, the umbilical veins and the vitelline veins drain; the primitive common atrium; the primitive common ventricle; and the bulbus cordis through which blood flows to the paired dorsal aortae. The paired dorsal aortae arise when the branchial or pharyngeal arches are penetrated by six pairs of arteries called aortic arches. These arteries arise from the aortic sac and terminate in a dorsal aorta. Initially, the paired dorsal aortae run along the whole length of the embryo but soon fuse to form a single dorsal aorta just caudal to the branchial or pharyngeal arches.The arterial and venous ends of the heart tube are fixed by the branchial or pharyngeal arches and the septum transversum, respectively. At this stage the heart is beating and the contractions are of myocardial origin and likened to peristalsis.The primitive atrium loops up behind and above the primitive ventricle and behind and to the left of the bulbus cordis forming the bulboventricular loop.. This looping process brings the primitive areas of the heart into the proper spatial relationship for the further development of the heart.Embryonic venous circulation consists of thr ee pairs of veins: the vitelline veins which drain blood from the yolk sac, the umbilical veins which bring oxygenated blood from the chorion (early placenta), and the common cardinal veins which return blood to the heart from the body of the embryo. Arterial circulation consists of three paired arteries: the intersegmental arteries, which form 30-35 branches of the dorsal aortae and carry blood to the embryo, the vitelline arteries which pass to the yolk sac and later to the primitive gut, and the umbilical arteries which carry oxygen-depleted blood to the placenta.3)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Formation of the Heart ChambersAs mentioned above, during cardiac looping the cardiac jelly disappears fromthe future major chambers of the heart and begins to accumulate in the  Ã‚  Ã‚   atrioventricular junction (AVJ) and developing outflow tract (OFT). This results in the formation of the endocardial cushion tissues in the dorsal and ventral walls of the AVJ. These cushions are invaded by mese nchymal cells, approach each other and fuse, dividing the atrioventricular canal into the right and left atrioventricular canals.The primitive atrium is divided into right and left atria by the formation, modification and fusion of the septum primum and the septum secundum. The septum primum grows towards the fusing endocardial cushions from the roof of the primitive atrium creating a curtainlike septum, the foramen primum between the free edge of the septum and the endocardial cushions.This foramen becomes progressively smaller and eventually disappears when the septum primum fuses with the fused endocardial cushions (atrioventricular septum). The septum secundum grows from the ventrocranial wall of the atrium to gradually overlap the foramen secundum in the septum primum, forming an incomplete separation between the atria in the form of an oval opening, the foramen ovale.The sinus venosus initially opens into the center of the dorsal wall of the primitive atrium and its left and r ight horns are of about the same size. The right horn progressively begins to enlarge in respect to the left horn until it receives all the blood from the head and neck via the superior vena cava and the placenta and caudal regions of the body via the inferior vena cava. The left horn forms the coronary sinus.The wall of the left atrium is formed by the incorporation of the primitive pulmonary vein which develops as an outgrowth of the dorsal atrial wall. As the atrium expands, the primitive pulmonary vein and its branches are gradually incorporated into the wall of the left atrium forming four pulmonary veins with separate openings.The division of the primitive ventricle into the right and left ventricles is initially indicated by a muscular ridge with a concave free edge in the middle of the ventricular floor near its apex. Initially, most of its increase in height results from the dilation of the ventricles on its each side. Later, however there is active proliferation of myoblas ts, forming the thick muscular part of the interventricular septum.At the beginning a crescentic interventricular foramen exists between the free edge of the interventricular septum and the fused endocardial cushions allowing communication between the right and left ventricles. This foramen closes as the result of the fusion of tissue from three sources: 1) the right bulbar ridge, 2) the left bulbar ridge and 3) the endocardial ridges. The membranous part of the interventricular spetum is derived from tissue extension from the right side of the endocardial cushions. It merges with the aorticopulmonary septum and the thick muscular part of the interventricular septum. When the interventricular foramen closes, the pulmonary trunk is in communication with the right ventricle and the aorta communicates with the left ventricle.Active proliferation of mesenchymal cells in the walls of the bulbus cordis gives rise to the formation of the bulbar ridges. Similar ridges form in the truncus ar teriosus and are continuous with the bulbar ridges. Both the bulbar and the truncal ridges have a spiral orientation and result in the formation of a spiral aorticopulmonary septum when the bulbar and truncal ridges fuse. This septum divides the bulbus cordis and the truncus arteriosus into the aorta and pulmonary trunk.Due to the spiral orientation of the aorticopulmonary septum, the pulmonary trunk twists around the aorta. The bulbus cordis is incorporated into the walls of the ventricles. In the left ventricle it forms the walls of the aortic vestibule just inferior to the aortic valve. In the right ventricle it forms the infundibulum or conus arteriosus.Ventricular trabeculation begins in the apical region of the ventricles soon after  cardiac looping. The trabeculation serves primarily as a way of increasing the  oxygenation of the myocardium in the absence of   a coronary circulation. The  compactation of the trabeculae adds to the proportion and thickness of the  co mpact myocardium.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Essay of the Ideology and Social Base of Bharatiya Janata Party Essay

The Bhartiya Janata Party (BJP) was formally launched as an independent political organisation in February 1980, after the split of the Janata Party on the R.S.S issue. Most of east while Jana Sangha members along with a few others, left the Janata Party to form the B.J.P. Thus the B.J.P. is a reincarnation of the Jana Sangha, the militant Hindu nationalist party founded in 1951 by Shyama Prasad Mukherjee. The object of the Jana Sangha was the rebuilding of Bharat as a modern, democratic society in accordance with religious precepts. The party adopted four fundamentals one country, one nation, one culture and a rule of law that would determine its future course of action Nehru described the party as its â€Å"Illegitimate child.† Professor Rasheeduddin Khan has rightly remarked, â€Å"The BJP has prints of continuity with the Jana Sangha, in its discipline and well knit organisational set up and units linkage with the traditional Hindus socio-cultural organisations, the RSS a nd the VTTP.† Support Base: The BJP’s support base is essentially the same as that of the erst while Jana Sangha. It is a party of the urban educated Hindu middle classes professionals, small businessmen and white collar workers. In Gujarat, Maharashtra, Delhi and Rajasthan BJP is the ruling party with charismatic leaders like Suresh Meheta, Gopinath Mundle, Mandas Lai Khurana and Bhairon Singh shekhawat. But BJP’s most impressive performance was in Karnataka, U.P. and Gujarat in 1991 election. In all these states the BJP vote went up by over 20%. Gujarat represents the BJP’s most spectacular showing. Electoral Performance: In 1967, the party gave its full support to the SVD ministry in U.P headed by Charan Singh and it had 98 members in the Vidhan Sabha. In 1977, with 98 of its men in parliament under the Janata banner it received only three cabinet ministership. In 1980 the party backed Jagajivan Ramand in 1983 with their 18 members in the Karnataka legislature the BJP supported R.K. Hegde who was then of a minority The BJP bore V.P. Singh on its shoulders after he formed the Jana Morcha. In 1984 during its worst showing only 2 Lok Sabha seats it still polled 7.4% of the national votes ahead of the Janata’s 6.7 percent and the Lok Dai’s 5.6. Ideology and Programme: The BJP believes in Gandhian socialism. The party says that its socialism is inspired not only bi Gandhi and JP but also by a Deen Dayal Upadhyaya. It stands for positive secularism and clean government while laying emphasis! on the ‘Hindus Idiom’ on its poll manifesto, the party stands for justice for all and appeasement of none. Policy of reservations for the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes apply the same policy to the backward castes broadly in line with the recommendation of the Mandal Commission. The party also favours smaller and stronger states desires to abolish Article 370, favours uniform civil code and would like to establish Human Rights Commission. BJP – RSS Relationship: The Jana sangh has been closely associated with the RSS. The RSS has served as the organizational base for the party. The BJP being its successor, what type of relationship it has with the RSS? The official stand of the BJP and the RSS is that those are two separate organizations working in two different -fields. Besides they do not interfere in each others work. But an over whelming majority of the BJP workers have RSS background. Therefore a large number of people think that the two organizations belong to the one and some family. Even the BJP has reaffirmed its RSS link. It seems this link as vital to its newly emphasized commitment to national unity since it believes that the RSS’s patriotism is unmatched. It is’ in fact proud of its link with RSS. The BJP is now being viewed as an alternative to the century partoes that have so far had a monopoly on power.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Crim Reaction Paper Essays

Crim Reaction Paper Essays Crim Reaction Paper Essay Crim Reaction Paper Essay Reaction paper: Due Wed 14 Nov. 20% Students will be required to submit a 2-3 page (double-spaced) reaction paper to a secondary source criminological article taken from an academic journal. Steps to the paper: 1. Find an academic peer-reviewed journal article that pertains to a subject within criminology that interests you. This could be: developments in policing, courts, corrections, young offenders, Aboriginals, minorities etc. Note that you must find article with an empirical topic, and not just a conceptual review/theoretical piece. 2. Read the paper carefully. . Identify the general theoretical orientation of the author (whether or not it is explicitly stated by the author). Is this author deploying an individualistic or larger structural perspective? Are they more consensual or conflictual in their thinking? 4. How explicit is the author in identifying their theoretical position? 5. Does the author make any policy recommendations, and how do these recommendations relates to th eir theoretical position? 6. Does the author present sufficient evidence in their paper to justify their theoretical position? 7. Based on the analysis in the paper, do you think that the authors theoretical position is the best one for looking at the empirical topic of interest? What kinds of data might they need to make their theoretical position stronger (i. e. , to back up their theoretical point)? 8. Do you think that there is another theoretical tradition that more adequately addresses the empirical topic of interest? If you are going to do research in this area, what kinds of questions would you ask, what kinds of data would you look for, and what kinds of theory would inform your research?

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Thomas Jefferson on Slavery essays

Thomas Jefferson on Slavery essays Thomas Jefferson (born 1743, died 1826) was the third President of the United States. Jefferson expressed the convictions in the minds and hearts of the American people (Bernstein 205). He said that the main objects of all science are the freedom and happiness of man (Jefferson Digital Archive). Thomas Jefferson, the author of the Declaration of Independence, Who championed rights and liberation, did not implement his beliefs, especially with his practice of slavery. Between May 17 and June 28, 1776, Jefferson wrote the constitution for Virginia and The Declaration of Independence, his two most famous political documents (Bernstein 250). Jefferson served as a member of the Committee to draft the Declaration of Independence (History Channel Online). The Declaration of Independence, written in 1776, remains Jeffersons best known work. It set forth the position of the American people and their desire to govern themselves. He believed in the natural rights of all people: We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of happiness (Bernstein 207). His original draft of the Declaration of Independence included strong language opposing the transatlantic slave trade. Foreign affairs dominated his day-to-day attentions while president, often pushing him toward Federalist policies that contrasted with his political philosophy (Brodie 209). Jefferson also opposed slavery. How could slavery exist in a land where all men are created equal? Jefferson felt that this abomination (slavery) must come to an end. And there is a superior bench in heaven for those who hasten the end of slavery (Jefferson Digital Archive). He believed that All men are born free (Brodie 105) and as a young politician he argued for the prohib...

Sunday, November 3, 2019

A Journal opinion article Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

A Journal opinion article - Essay Example The first three months of the year experienced decline in spending by domestic household in the United States as reported by the commerce department. The decline in consumption dropped from the estimated 3.6 percent to 2.6percent as the CNBC reported. The commerce department reported massive decline spending in crucial sectors, notably the service sector based on the report by CNBC, consumers decreased their spending in legal services, health care and more so in personal care. One of the major causes of the consumption decline could have been the new taxation law. The increase in the social security tax at the beginning of the year could have limited the extent to which households spend within the first quarter. The tax increase lowered directly the amount of income that households would take home at end of the day. After taxation, consumers were left with only meager income; these consumers choose to concentrate on basic commodities only (Morrissey 1). As opposed to earlier projecti ons that had showed increase in the amount export for first quarter, the latest report indicated otherwise. The department of commence statistics indicated that export decreased indeed to 1.1percent while imports also declined to 0.4 percent. The decrease in export translated to limited foreign currency at the disposal of the government for the country to trade with other countries. Consequently, the fall in imports resulted to decrease in foreign revenue. Both reductions in export and import negative effects on the country’s gross domestic product and contributed to the drop in the figure that had been projected for the first quarter to be 2.4percent (Morrissey 1). Amid concerns that the government was cutting its spending, consumers could have become more reserved in their spending. Government spending cut could lead to increase in the prices of commodities that had been earlier subsidized. A decrease in government’s spending could also result to households paying fo r basic services that were being catered for by the state prior to cut in spending. Vis a Vis the speculation of the government cutting its spending motivated a decline in consumption by consumers that further led to drop in the GDP of the first quarter. However, according to the wall street journal, the cut in governments spending which took effect in first month of the first quarter led to direct deduction of 0.9 percent off the growth rate (BBC 1). Due to economical globalization of the world, there existed unprecedented events all over the world that were bound to destabilize the projected GDP by department of commerce. Economic instability in states such as china and European countries could have contributed to gravitation of the united states GDP to 1.8 percent. With globalization, no single economy can exist in solitary in the 21st century. Hence, through globalization, the myriad of macroeconomics factors derailing the Chinese economy and euro zone states such as Greece adve rsely influenced the bilateral trade between these countries. The decrease in the annual economic growth of china triggered the decline in trade between the two countries. On the other hand, the worsening conditions of euro zone states such as Greece continued to shift trade further away from the European countries causing down surge in the amount of investments by Americans in the oversees (BBC 1). Though the department of com

Friday, November 1, 2019

Human Resources Internal & External Recruiting advantages Essay

Human Resources Internal & External Recruiting advantages - Essay Example The internal recruitment method and the external recruitment method. These two methods can be defined as follows. Internal Recruitment is the process of finding potential internal candidates and encouraging them to apply for and be willing to accept organizational job openings. This can be done by Job posting which means information about a job vacancy is placed in conspicuous places in an organization, such as bulletin boards or newsletters. External Recruitment on the other hand is the process of finding potential external candidates and encouraging them to apply for and be willing to accept the organizational job openings. This can be done by realistic job preview which is a technique used during the recruitment process in which the job candidate is presented with a balanced view of both the positive and negative aspects of the job (Julie Andrew Marc Kline Mike Bohl, Christine Stone Roland Gehweiler, 12). Internal recruitment as we said is the recruitment of employees from within the organization, and this certainly has positive and negative effects on the organization. Recruitment effects the organization as a whole, but over here we will discuss only its effects on workplace, labor force and wages. Starting off with the advantages that recruitment provides to the work place. The employee is oriented to the organization. He knows of the organization structure, its policies and regulation, the working environment as well as the people working with him. He is also familiar with the culture that exists. This overall saves the time of the management and directly hands over the new responsibilities as in other terms the employee is actually promoted from his current job. Since the management has already worked with him they have the reliable information required. They know of the employees' strengths and weaknesses and are aware of how to control the new status given. Then comes a very important factor which is the recruitment cost being very low. There is no need to advertise for the job available, as the required skills already exist within the organization. The internal recruitment provides a career structure. It gives an incentive to the current employees to work efficiently and get promoted. This provides an additional scope for the current ones. Lets have a look at the disadvantages that the internal recruitment's work place has. One drawback of extensive internal recruiting is the reduced likelihood of innovation and new perspectives. A lack of new employees from the outside leads to a lack of new ideas and approaches. A use of the internal pool for the consideration of vacant positions can lead to conflicts. The organization has to ensure and continuously check its balance of a diverse workforce. This has to relate to the organization's legal, political and geographical environment. Internal recruiting demands a higher degree of employee training. In order to develop the skills needed to train the current workforce in new processes and technologies, the organization has to provide a more expensive training program. It limits the number of candidates, as not everyone within the organization is capable of taking over the vacant job. It may cause jealousy amongst the employees as not everyone can be promoted. The managers may resent loss of staff to other departments as its pretty logical that the one being promoted was a good employee and therefore the place he would be