Wednesday, October 30, 2019

How can tax cuts help revive the economy Explain Essay - 2

How can tax cuts help revive the economy Explain - Essay Example The effect of tax cuts on the macro economy will however depend on the way the taxpayers will use their additional income and adjustment of government to its low income. This is referred to as fiscal policy which contrasts the macroeconomic policy which attempts to control interest rates as well as supply of money in stabilizing the economy. Fiscal policy uses taxation and government expenditure as its two instruments. Changes in taxation levels and government spending impacts on aggregate demand and economic activity level in the economy. It also impacts on pattern of allocation of resources and income distribution. Fiscal policy is used by government to influence economic aggregate demand in the need to achieve price stability, economic growth and full employment. According to Kogan, (2003), tax cuts stimulate the economy together with intervention of interest rates and deficit spending. Economic stimulation can only be realized if the government reduces its expenditure and the tax payers increase their expenditure especially on local commodities. The free market economy advocates argue that economic welfare of people will be improved since people are rational in what they want than the government. The suppliers of economy advocate for tax cuts because they stimulate the economy if the government expenditure is maintained and tax payers spend more of their income on locally produced commodities. This stimulates the economic growth but only on condition that it is properly maintained, otherwise it leads to economic inflation. If the expected revenue increase in the long term is not realized, the government may be left with huge debts to pay and hence a dangerous budgetary crisis. In order that the government determines that the tax cut is or is not worth to the economy, the tax multiplier is used, which measures aggregate production changes as a result of

Monday, October 28, 2019

Compare the portrayal of Clytaemnestra in both Aeschylus Essay Example for Free

Compare the portrayal of Clytaemnestra in both Aeschylus Essay Compare the portrayal of Clytaemnestra in both Aeschylus Agamemnon and Euripides Electra. Which portrayal do you think is more effective and why?  The character of Clytaemnestra is portrayed very differently in both Aeschylus Agamemnon and Euripides Electra. In Agamemnon, we see a very strong female ruler, who is completely absorbed by her passion for vengeance, whereas the figure in Electra is far more maternal, and shows a concern for her family and reputation, which was not apparent in Aeschylus play. This subdued version of Clytaemnestra shows a stark contrast to the fierce and dominant character in Agamemnon, however both characters remain fascinating for different reasons. The Clytaemnestra of Agamemnon seems to be fearless of retribution, with an infallible belief in her own righteousness; I have no fear that his avengers tread shall shake this house. In Electra, however, we see a very different character, humbled over the years, and afraid of Orestes, Im terrifiedthey say he is full of anger for his fathers death. These different reactions to the same topic emphasise how greatly the character of Clytaemnestra differs in each play, from the meek and subdued housewife of Electra, to the self-assured and confident murderess of Agamemnon. One explanation for the changes in character of Clytaemnestra in these plays is the timescale in which they are set. The events in Electra happen several years after those in Agamemnon, and the more mature and calmer Clytaemnestra we see portrayed in Euripides play could be due to the effect of time on her, and the fact that she has had several years in which to reflect upon her actions and realise the full extent of the crimes that she committed against her husband. In Electra, Clytaemnestra states how bitterly I regret it now with regards to the murder she has committed, showing that she has indeed been thinking about the events of the past and repents her actions. This Clytaemnestra is very subdued in comparison to the character portrayed by Aeschylus, and although we can see some evidence of the passion and raw energy that made the character so fascinating in Agamemnon, for instance when she attempts to justify her murder of Agamemnon to her daughter; why should he not die? it is clear in Electra that Clytaemnestra is to take second stage to her daughter in regards to unhindered fury and a lust for vengeance. This older, wiser Clytaemnestra still remains crucial to the plot, but not as a central character, and is merely a shadow of her former self, the confident, powerful creature who dictated the action of Aeschylus play. The style of the two playwrights is a notable difference in the two plays, and the representation of Clytaemnestra varies greatly due to this. Euripides, the more modern o the two tragedists, tended to use sophistic arguments to confound the audiences expectations of a character. With Clytaemnestra, for instance, he decided to move away from her monstrous image the audience would have expected after plays such as Agamemnon, and instead portrayed her as a gentler, maternal figure. This technique was enhanced by the fact that we do not see Clytaemnestra until the second half of the play; only hear about her from Electra. The image portrayed by this character is similar to the one portrayed in Agamemnon, so much so as the audience can wonder whether Euripides is intentionally parodying this version of events, as he had done earlier in the play with the recognition scene, a clear parody of The Libation Bearers. Aeschylus, a far more traditional playwright, portrays Clytaemnestra in her c lassic style, as the murderess of her own husband. This portrayal is, however, somewhat sympathetic towards Clytaemnestra, and we can feel some compassion towards her, although this does not excuse her actions. Aeschylus gave the audience a clear moral standpoint in his tragedies, and they are aware through both the use of the chorus, and the play itself, whose side to be on, from a moral perspective. Euripides on the other hand, tended to be deliberately ambiguous, and his treatment of Clytaemnestra is typical of this. The two sides of the woman that are exposed in this play; the ruthless killer of Agamemnon, as seen through the eyes of Electra, and the reformed wife of Aegisthus, as is later portrayed. This use of sophistic techniques in order to confound the audiences expectations is common in the plays of Euripides, and is particularly effective in this portrayal of such a fascinating woman. The fact that Clytaemnestra is the central character in Agamemnon yet only plays a small part in Euripides Electra also accounts for several differences in her character. The Clytaemnestra in Agamemnon appears almost constantly throughout the play, and through this we can see the development of her character from the strong wife looking after her husbands estate whilst he is at war: Our king and leader absentour duty pays his due observance to his wife, to the violent mistress who murders her husband without remorse at the end of the play: caught by the ruthless falsehood of a wife. Aeschylus is able to develop his character over a far greater stretch of time than Euripides as, in Electra, Clytaemnestra only appears in one scene. The fact that Clytaemnestra is the main protagonist in Agamemnon allows us to examine her character to a far greater extent, enabling us to see how obsessed she has become with the idea of vengeance, and the murder of her husband: His death the work of my right hand, whose craftsmanship Justice acknowledges. In Electra, the character of Clytaemnestra is not given as much time to develop, and we have to make assumptions on her based on the short dialogue between her and Electra.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

What is the role of Owen in Translations? :: English Literature

What is the role of Owen in Translations? One of the first things Owen says on returning to Baile Beg is â€Å"I can’t believe it. I come back after six years and everything’s just as it was! Nothing’s changed!† It is really Owen who has changed into a different person after his time away from Baile Beg. His primary role in the play is that of a translator for the visiting English, but within his role of translator he is also vital to the play as his presence allows relationships between the characters and the plot to develop. Owen provides many contrasting point of views due to the fact that he is working for the English but also a Baile Beg resident. He is a representative of the more forward - thinking Irish, such as himself and Maire. He and Maire realise that for the natural progression of the Irish society they need to work with the English and not against them. Owen has passed the cultural divide that exists between the Irish and English because he can communicate with them and understand their point of view. He has also progressed as an individual through knowledge and understanding. This could be Friel’s way of saying that progress can only come after understanding. Manus can also speak English but chooses not to, this shows the importance of communication to progression. He prefers to use a language, which is becoming less widely used, this may be a symbol of the backwardness of his homeland. The most significant enemy in the re-naming of the places is that the Irish believe it to be a removal of their heritage and tradition, as Manus says, â€Å"What’s incorrect about the place names we have here?† Owens’s view on the idea of preservation of tradition is very questionable. For example when he and Yolland are discussing what to call Tobair Vree he asks, â€Å"do we keep piety with a man long dead, long forgotten, his name eroded beyond recognition, whose trivial little story nobody else in the parish remembers?† Here Owen points to the Irish people’s almost instinctive fear of change. He thinks that tradition is silly and just an excuse to hide from progression. Owen is the neutral and less passionate character in the play; therefore the audience find it easier to relate with Owen. In fact it is possible to call Owen the chief narrator. Although Owen is the translator in the play he acts as more of a barrier of understanding because when translating for Yolland and Lancey he omits details and changes meanings for words. A good example for this would be when he changes Maire’s sentence of â€Å"Has he

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Business Plan for Toy Shop

BUSIENSS PLAN FOR TOY SHOP BUSINESS PLAN KIDZONE TOY STORE Submitted by: Ajit Mangarulkar Vishwanath Patil Piyush Borde Kunal Dalal Yogendra Bhosale Rahul Tayade Overview of the Industry INTRODUCTION The toy industry mainly concentrated in and around the metropolitan cities of New Delhi and Mumbai in India, is characterized by small-scale establishments. Of late, the toy industry has been internationalized. The application of new materials and technologies have added value to the variety of the toys. Today, the use of toys is unlimited.They are used for decorations by adults and for education & play by children. Toys are also being used for entertainment and child development. Plastic toys, along with soft toys (mainly dolls) and board games, make up about 80% of the Indian market in value terms. The change that is discernible is the decline in Importance of board games (other than puzzles), which involve play by a group of children. Those in the trade argue that, with smaller family size today and the growing incidence of both parents working, there is little scope for board games, which families used to traditionally play together.The emphasis these days is much more on toys, with which a child can play on his/her own. Market Dynamics of the Indian Toy Trade The Indian toy market exhibits some of the characteristics common to any toy market while others have uniquely the Indian character. Individual toys have a short life cycle. There is a constant need for novelty. Consumer tastes change rapidly. Resurrection of old toys does not work – a new content has to be added or altered. These rules, in general, apply to most toy markets internationally. In addition, the Indian market has its own angularities.Toy sales in India have well defined seasonal patterns coinciding with the festival season. Generally, the time period from July to November is the high season with temporary surges in some States in December & March. Toy selling in India often involves se lling to 3 individuals simultaneously, namely the child, who will use the toy, the mother, who is concerned with safety, space to play, etc. and the father who controls the purse strings. The market is also highly price sensitive. This trend has been reinforced by the entry of large-scale imports of cheap and novel toys from China.These have mostly been unbranded, of low priced and indifferent quality toys. The past decade has seen the Indian toy industry making quick strides in terms of production and exports. At present, India produces a wide range of toys, namely plastic and mechanical activity toys, plastic and soft dolls, stuffed toys, board games, puzzles, educational games and toys, metal toys, electronic toys and games. It is estimated that the toy production in India is around INR 5. 50 billion in the organized sector and INR 12. 50 billion in the unorganized sector with nearly 20% annual average growth rate.There are more than 3000 units in the small-scale sector including large number of units in the cottage sector. Some large/MNCs’ toy units like the Mattel, Lego and Funskool are also present in India. With international quality toys available in India now, the average spending on toys has increased substantially and this process is supported by an increase in disposable income at the customer end. Introduction â€Å"To every child, presenting a toy creates a special attachment between the two. † We intend to satisfy the needs of the children mainly aged below 10yrs. y having an â€Å"KIDZONE† as a part of organized retail, catering to almost all the trifling requirements of kids. Service will be one of our main focus areas wherein we intend to have a â€Å"play n feel the toys† zone attracting the kids to enjoy with toys. This facility will give a real feeling of amusement to children, hence attracting the kids and parents towards it. Thereafter we will also provide a babysitting facility for parents shopping throughout the mall and in the meantime the trifling needs of babies will be taken care of.Secondly, we will focus on disintermediation of procurement channel by directly sourcing the finished products from the toy manufacturers mainly from China & other manufacturers from India. Most importantly we are looking forward to revolutionize the toy industry by having merged quality with fun wherein all the safety issues would be taken care ensuring the source of playfulness not becoming a hysterical item. Above all our long term goal is to make our retail outlets as a brand name well recognized in toy industry and increase the organized retail market share in toys segment.Management Team Vishwanath Patil – Ajit Mangarulkar – Piyush Borde – Yogendra Bhosale – Kunal Dalal – Marketing Plan SWOT Analysis Strengths: Our business would impart touch & feel factor to the child We would impart child caring facility in our store where the parents can leave their child and go for shopping which will in turn lead to sales by having child for more hours in shops & can be addicted or fascinated to any of the toy Large & Growing Population (Market Size data to found out) – Age group between 0-8 years Maximum Loyalty towards shopDemonstration Effect Higher Margins due to large imports from China, Hong Kong & other countries Wide range of products to choose Fewer bargains for the products Increase in disposable income of middle class Weakness Emotional attachment towards toy which leads to non repetitive buying Price sensitivity market Safety Issue in terms of lead contain, sharpness of toys etc Individual toy have shorter life cycle & consumer taste changes rapidly Opportunity Untapped organized sector which consists of only 10% of total toy industry. Better support from governmentDemand for Educational toy in the market Threats Due to large expansion of Mall Culture, there is increase in competition from the players Big Fish with deep pockets will able to sell products at competitive price (Entry of global brands) Marketing Mix The marketing mix is often summarized as the four P’s – Product, Price, Place and Promotion. Product The type of product that would be placed in the store will be dependent on the age group. During the initial period the store would cater to age group of from the day child is born to 8 years.The later as the store expands and capital is generated the store would cater to toys catering to people with age more than 8 years and toys for adult. The product that will be defined within age group is as follows 0-24 months: Teethers, squeaks, Tomy, balls, soft toys, baby education toys and others. Photos of some of products are given below. 2 years to 4 years: puzzles, cars, Helicopters Photos of some of products are shown below 4years to 6 years: Magic tricks, electronic cars and helicopters, electronic gadgets and toys of film stars and other famous personality, famous cartoon character, Barbie & others.Photos of some of products are shown below: 6years to 8 years: Tricycles, Bicycles, and other ride on toys. Apart from that the musical toys and electrical operated toys will also be placed in the shelves 8 years to 10 years: Board room games, chess and other family games would be the major attraction The stuffed toys and Plush toys would be all time major attraction towards the customers. The above mentioned is only a part of whole list of offerings offered by the store. The main unique selling proposition would be the Indian touch in toys.We will also try to procure the toys of famous personalities –all time legends like Shahrukh Khan from film industry, Dhirubhai Ambani from business,  Narayan Karthikeyan from F1 racing like all the famous personalities in their respective fields will be incorporated as toys. The toys projected in any of Bollywood and Hollywood industry will also be major attraction for the customers. We will try to innovate and help suppliers to also make customized product if possible and thereby increasing the revenues.The key to business will be continuous innovation in all product ranges. Price: The price of the product sell in the shop will depend on the sourcing and also the total cost of procurement. In the initial years of opening of shop we will not be having competitive pricing but the prices would be at par with other competitors in the market. After years of experience in the business and due to strong hold with the suppliers, we will be having a bargaining power with the suppliers and will try to sell product at lower prices compared to competitor.We will be having Lowest Prices in the Town in one of product everyday to attract as many customers as possible. Moreover the product would be selling at par with our costing, so we won’t be able to generate from the product sold at lowest prices. The whole list of prices with the name of the product is attached in the annexure 8. Place: The majority of the product would be procured from China and also some of the product would be procured from India itself. The main source from India would be Chennai, Noida and Mumbai. The sourcing from China would be in terms of imports via sea route.The cost of procuring of the product is already been included in the financials. The time for procurement of goods would be taking near around 28 days from the day of placing of order from China and the procurement from Chennai or Noida will take maximum four days and from Mumbai it would take one day lead time. The toys would be stock in the store itself; there won’t be any special storage place or another location of the toys. The toys would be readily available to the customers on demand if stock is available. Promotion:The less effort would be required in terms of promotion as the store will be located in Thane East But still promotion will be required to create a buzz in the city which would be carried out be two means. 1) Print Ads in local newspaper. As maximum people in Maharashtra are habituated of reading of local newspaper, so the ads would be given in local newspaper on repetitive basis. The ads will also be given in other non local newspaper but frequency of ads would differ in both the cases. 2) Advertisement would be carried out in radio stations. Continuous announcement would be given in all leading radio stations like Radio Mirchi and Big FM. ) Distributions of pamphlets would also be one of the marketing strategies for carrying out promotion. As in the initial period it is not possible to be present in all the malls, so distribution of pamphlets in all the malls will be carried out on weekly basis. 4) All this promotion will in turn lead to Word of mouth marketing 5) In later stages of business the viral marketing will also be carried out. OPERATION PLAN Location The location selected for opening an outlet is THANE (Maharashtra). Thane is the largest city in the state of Maharashtra and the The city is witn essing a major construction boom and population increase.A rising centre of education, information technology and scientific industries, Thane remains the cultural and commercial heart of Maharashtra, and much of western India. The main reason behind selection of this city is the city is developing stage & we witness tremendous opportunity in the coming years. The real estate boom will be going to come in the city so we don’t won’t to miss the opportunity to be there within couple of years. The reason for selection of the city is its proximity to MUMBAI. The proximity to the city will help in reducing the transportation cost and increasing overall efficiency and savings in operations.Type of Building The location of the shop would be in the shop in Thane (East). Amount of Space The amount of space needed would be around 2000 sq feet of area which would be more or less compared to any retail chains. The amount of space needed would be targeted in malls in the basement n ear around the entry of Reliance and Big Bazaar shops. We targeted the basement due to its cost effectiveness. The shop would be lease for 5 year period for the initial purpose and then if needed would be bought out. The general lease rental of the area in Thane (East) is around Rs. 30000 per month. Other DetailsThe business hours of the shop would last from 10am to 10pm as major. We see the timings to be getting extended at weekends. Moreover the timing would be subjected to the change. Lead Time The main source of supplier would be from the Shantou in China and from Shanghai in China. The other supplier from India would be the Hanung toys in Noida, Mattel Inc. in Chennai and also the Funskool India Ltd in Chennai. The cost of transport of freight from China to India ranges from 428 USD to 600 USD depending on the date of ordering. The other cost of transportation from Mumbai to Thane would be around 2000 INR.The cost of procurement of consignment from Mumbai to Thane would be is 3 000INR and from Delhi/Noida it is around 8000 INR. So the lead time if calculated to import from toys from China would be around one month and from procurement from India only it would take around one week from farthest place i. e. Chennai in India for procurement of toys. Sales Estimation Due to prime location of the shop in the malls we expect the sales to be reaching high in the weekends and also in the festivals. This figure comes from the fact that out of 15000 people visiting Thane East daily on an average, around 82% are parents and remaining are youth.So out of 82% of total population we average that around 35% of parents would be with child who comes for the shopping. As mentioned that we shall be a unique adventure in the shop as a playing area specially allotted for the kids to play with the toys which ever they want out of majority of samples placed in playing area. The other advantage is that the child would be taken care of specially trained employees and all this pack age would come for free. We expect the shopping time taken by any parents would be around 1 hour.So we provide facility for parents to leave their child to play in the shop and if they want they can buy the toy. We rely on the fact provided by the doctors that one hour is enough for a child up to 6 years to get addicted with the toy. Hence as a child gets addicted to play with the toy, they would force parents for purchase of same toy. We only expect 75 customers to get converted out of minimum 1500 people visiting per hour (which is around just 5% of total customers visited in the mall. ) The other occasion for increase in the sales would be the festivals and also the Valentine’s Day for the youth.The shop target customer is up to 14 years but due to presence of Splush toys and also teddies and fur toys which stand attraction for the youth, so we expect the sales to increase in valentine day. Personnel In order to manage the day to day operations we along with three partners have decided to keep the following personnel for smooth operations. In order to reduce our fixed expenses we have restricted ourselves to six employees in the initial three months of our operations. However with time and requirement we shall keep increasing the strength. Number of employees: * Store Facilitators-02 Store Manager-01 * Housekeeper-01 Financial Details Projected start up cost Projected start up cost| | Security Deposits Monthly RentSalary to StaffPurchase of ToysFurniture and StationaryReserved| 100000 30000 20000250000 50000 50000| Total Start Up Cost| 500000| Sources of Fund 50% fund from Partners50 % fund from State Bank of India| 250000250000| Total Fund Raised| 500000| Projected Balance Sheet Liabilities| Rs. | Assets| Rs. | Capital| 500000| Furniture ComputerStockCash DepositeCurrent assets| 50000 20000250000 50000100000 30000| Total | 500000| Total| 500000|

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Unit Assignment

Then, the paper will go into further detail about problems and, dilemmas, that accompanied the old traditional classification. As a consequence of this state of affairs, the psychological community all agreed upon one matter. In short, it's a fact of necessity, that the old terms, â€Å"projective† and â€Å"objective must be parted with. † Finally, substitute terms are needed to be designated as suitable the new placements, and, the community is all in agreement to simply refer to assessment tasks by their specific name. Unit 8 Assignment Historical use of the Terms Objective and ProjectiveMore than 10 years ago, psychologists have been labeling personality tests by dividing them into two separate types either the objective method or the projective method. Many people have seen them in documents, in the same exact way. Those two words continue to be seen in textbooks, in all types of articles, in graduate programs, and, generally all over the place. Historically, many psychologists have become used to utilizing these terms without fully realizing that they do not begin to define, the psychological personality assessment tests that, they are purported to identify. The terms â€Å"objective† ND â€Å"projective† are not only scientifically inaccurate, but problematic from a professional standpoint as well† (Bernstein, 2007, p. 202). Because, science is trying to keep up with today's times they are trying to eliminate those two terms, objective and projective from the lexicon. â€Å"In the interests Of advancing the science of personality assessment, we believe it is time to end this historical practice and retire these terms from our formal lexicon and general discourse describing the methods of personality assessment† (Meyer & Kurt, 2006, p. 223). The old descriptions do not accurately describe a human rationality.Historically, the methods that were used for describing personality assessment tests have always been divide d into two separate parts. The one section has been objective and the other section has always been projective. These words are ambiguous because they have several possible meanings and they are difficult to comprehend, distinguish or classify a certain type personality in these tests. It's like painting a picture with two different colors and trying to classify it, with only two colors. The results of this show that the terms are so unclear, and they have multiple meanings.Unfortunately, the terms objective and projective carry multiple, often unclear, meanings, including some connotations that are very misleading when applied to personality assessment instruments and methods† (Meyer & Kurt, 2006, p. 223). It is essential not to utilize these words as umbrella words because they do not cover everything they are purported to. â€Å"The old and familiar terminology of objective and projective personality tests has misleading connotations that will not Serve the field well as W e seek to have a more differentiated understanding of assessment methods† (Meyer & Kurt, 006, p. 24). Some other reasonable alternatives need to be agreed upon and utilized. These unsuitable words cannot be continued because they are misleading in terminology. â€Å"The unsuitable and primitive nature of the term projective is revealed when trying to arrive. It in umbrella label to characterize tasks as diverse as drawing one's family, telling stories in response to pictures, and stating what an ink blot looks like† (Meyer & Kurt, 2006, p. 224).Problems with Traditional Classification There cannot continue to be a broad-based paintbrush that is applied and entities to label all psychometric personality assessment tests. â€Å"Tests that are not so categorized will tend to be viewed less positively, regardless of psychometric data, because they are, after all, not objective† (Meyer & Kurt, 2006, p. 223). Because of the past, there is too much negativity surroundin g the term, projective. The terminology both, â€Å"objective† and â€Å"projective† are not necessarily what they seem. The term â€Å"objective† is a smokescreen for measures that can be just as subjective as anything else and the term â€Å"projective† is derived from untenable theoretical concepts that have anointed to create confusion in the field for a long time† (Chilliness, 2007, p. 197). Some other substantial problem is when the effects of a test cannot be duplicated by the same test more than one time. â€Å"If assessment psychologists did not derive overarching frameworks and terminologies for classifying psychological tests, those who use, study, or critique these tests would do it anyway.In this respect, it is better that an organizing framework be made explicit (and the logic underlying the framework spelled out in detail) than that multiple contrasting framework and labels emerge in isolation mongo different segments of the psycholo gical community† (Bernstein, 2007, p. 205). The volume of the dilemmas above have all been a culmination of psychologists and psychiatrists in this community and their opinions about the problems with traditional classification.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

19 Research Essay Topics on the Profession of a Medical Assistant

19 Research Essay Topics on the Profession of a Medical Assistant This is a three-part guide to assist you in writing a detailed research essay on medical assistant as a profession. The first part of this guide is all about interesting and informative facts. We have accumulated 19 in-depth facts to help you research on this topic. Professors love to put their students to test and this topic isn’t a very conventional one. However, we promise you that you won’t find a better and more collective analysis on the subject of medical assistant as a profession. Other parts of this guide will be explained to you once you go through all the topics. Here are 19 facts on the profession of a medical assistant for a research essay: Most medical assistants are required to perform and assist in routine tasks and day to day tasks pertaining to patient care. They are also required to schedule appointments, maintain medical records, keep a check on bill, code certain information for life and insurances purposes, prepare patients for examinations and medical tests, and administer dosages to patients. It’s one of the fastest growing careers in the world, with high demand and very good salary packages. The employment rate in this field specifically has grown by 31% between 2010 and today. That’s remarkably higher than all other fields in medicine. Medical assistants have to be experts in recording patient history and medical report writing as one of the basic functions of their job description is to maintain patients’ medical history records. Medical assistants have to be trained in laboratory sciences to manage lab specimens and deal with them accordingly. Medical assistants themselves have to be physically fit, have good hand-to-eye coordination as well as good motor skills in order to perform their jobs efficiently. Medical assistants are almost entirely responsible for running the doctor’s offices. They can find jobs in every field of medicine including podiatry, obstetrics, podiatry, and medical weight loss. The job can offer flexible hours, and most assistants are able to earn good money while managing their work schedule between various offices and clinics. This also helps them work in a variety of circumstances and learn more, which ultimately results in a higher experience level coupled with an increased pay. The working conditions for medical assistants are favorable as well. They work in well-furnished offices with proper lighting, though the job requires them to interact and deal with people from all walks of life. The job may also be stressful depending upon the circumstances a doctor and his team may have to deal with. The varieties for medical assistants to specialize in any of the medicine fields are endless, and so are the career paths. Approximately 60% of medical assistants work in clinics and doctors’ offices in the US. The field is rapidly changing and equips employees with real-world experiences to grow and handle the human conditions in the world. Most medical assistants pursue this career choice because like all professions concerned with medicine, this isn’t only a way to earn a good living, but also a way to serve people and look after their wellbeing. Medical assistants mostly report feeling more fulfilled than other career oriented people due to the fact that their work is considered as directly serving humanity. Most medical assistants are highly qualified, however one does not need a certificate to start a career as a medical assistant in most states. According to a recent survey conducted in May 2015 in the US, the median income of a medical assistant was recorded at $30,590. Formal training is not often required, apart from the obvious educational choices. This fact also makes students flood into this field as they may be given opportunities to train on the job and learn firsthand from practicing doctors. Another fact that makes this field so lucrative is that medical assistants are able to formulate their own work schedules according to what suits them best. This allows them to juggle between various specializations, learn more, and ultimately earn more. Various titles for medical assistants include dental assistants, dental hygienists, licensed practical and vocational nurses, surgical staff team members, medical machinery operators, historical patient record maintainers, health information and technology technicians, nursing assistants and ward supervisors, therapy, aids trauma assistants, pharmacy technicians, just to name a few. The agencies that accredit and certify medical assistance are The Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (CAAHEP) and the Accrediting Bureau of Health Education Schools (ABHES) Even the training on the job may vary and depends on the field the medical assistant chooses to pursue. The duration of the training varies accordingly. It is generally thought that ton-job-training for medical assistants takes a shorter time span compared to formal doctors and surgeons. Medical assistants have a lot of room to diversify their future career path as technology advances and the field of medicine expands further. They may one day find themselves in the shoes of corporate employees in the hospitals/clinics or choose to train under doctors’ supervision to become certified doctors themselves. They might also branch out towards medicinal research and development, choose a teaching job in addition to their regular job or become professional paper writers on medicine etc. The opportunities are endless and the pay scale is expected to constantly increase in the field of medicine. We’re quite sure you found these 19 facts interesting as well as beneficial towards your own research. As we mentioned earlier, this is a three-part guide. The next part of this guide called: 20 topics on the profession of a medical assistant for a research essay will take you a step further. And the third part, how to properly research an essay on medical assistant, will give tips on research. References: Booth, K. A., Whicker, L., Wyman, T. D. (2014). Medical assisting: Administrative and clinical procedures including anatomy and physiology. New York: McGraw-Hill. Medical Assistant Careers: Duties, Training Job Outlook. (n.d.). Retrieved July 19, 2016, from Medical Assistant Job Description. (n.d.). Retrieved July 19, 2016, from Medical Assistants. (n.d.). Retrieved July 19, 2016, from What Does a Medical Assistant Do? (n.d.). Retrieved July 19, 2016, from What is a Medical Assistant? (n.d.). Retrieved July 19, 2016, from Linton, C. B. (2002). Medical abbreviations and acronyms. Boca Raton: BarCahrts.

Monday, October 21, 2019

Learn About the Applications of Fiberglass Composites

Learn About the Applications of Fiberglass Composites The use of fiberglass started during the Second World War. Polyester resin was invented in 1935. Its potential was recognized, but finding a suitable reinforcing material proved elusive – even palm fronds were tried. Then, glass fibers which had been invented in the early 1930’s by Russel Games Slaytor and used for glass wool home insulation, were successfully combined with the resin to make a durable composite. Although it was not the first modern composite material (Bakelite - cloth reinforced phenolic resin was the first), glass reinforced plastic (‘GRP’) quickly grew into a worldwide industry. By the early 1940s, fiberglass laminates were being produced. The first amateur use – the building of a small dinghy was in Ohio was in 1942. Early Wartime Use of Glass Fiber As a new technology, resin and glass production volumes were relatively low and as a composite, its engineering characteristics were not well understood. Nevertheless, its advantages over other materials, for specific uses, were apparent. Wartime metal supply difficulties focused on GRP as an alternative. Initial applications were to protect radar equipment (Radomes), and as ducting, for example, airplane engine nacelles. In 1945, the material was used for the aft fuselage skin of the US Vultee B-15 trainer. Its first use of fiberglass in main airframe construction was that of a Spitfire in England, though it never went into production. Modern Uses Almost 2 million tons a year of the unsaturated polyester resin (‘UPR’) component are produced worldwide, and its widespread use is based on a number of features besides its relatively low cost: low technology fabricationdurabilityhigh flexing tolerancemoderate/high strength/weight ratiocorrosion resistanceimpact resistance Aviation and Aerospace GRP is used extensively in aviation and aerospace though it is not widely used for primary airframe construction, as there are alternative materials which better suit the applications. Typical GRP applications are engine cowlings, luggage racks, instrument enclosures, bulkheads, ducting, storage bins and antenna enclosures. It is also widely used in ground-handling equipment. Automotive For those who love automobiles, the 1953 model Chevrolet Corvette was the first production car to have a fiberglass body. As a body material, GRP has never succeeded against metal for large production volumes. However, fiberglass has a big presence in the replacement body parts, custom and kit auto markets. Tooling costs are relatively low as compared with metal press assemblies and ideally, suit smaller markets. Boats and Marine Since that first dinghy in 1942, this is an area where fiberglass is supreme. Its properties are ideally suited to boat building. Although there were problems with water absorption, modern resins are more resilient, and the composites continue to dominate the marine industry. In fact, without GRP, boat ownership would never have reached the levels it has today, as other construction methods are simply too expensive for volume production and not amenable to automation. Electronics GRP is widely used for circuit board manufacture (PCBs) – there is probably one within six feet of you now. TVs, radios, computers, cellphones – GRP holds our electronic world together. Home Almost every home has GRP somewhere – whether in a bathtub or a shower tray. Other applications include furniture and spa tubs. Leisure How much GRP do you think there is in Disneyland? The cars on the rides, the towers, the castles – so much of it is based on fiberglass. Even your local fun park probably has water slides made from the composite. And then the health club – do you ever sit in a Jacuzzi? That’s probably GRP as well. Medical Because of its low porosity, non-staining, and hard wearing finish, GRP is ideally suited to medical applications, from instrument enclosures to X-ray beds (where X-ray transparency is important). Projects Most people who tackle DIY projects have used fiberglass at one time or another. It is readily available in hardware stores, easy to use (with a few health precautions to be taken), and can provide a really practical and professional looking finish. Wind Energy Building 100’ wind turbine blades is a major growth area for this versatile composite, and with wind energy a massive factor in the energy supply equation, its use is certain to continue to grow. Summary GRP is all around us, and its unique characteristics will ensure that it remains one of the most versatile and easy to use composites for many years to come.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Denounce vs. Renounce

Denounce vs. Renounce Denounce vs. Renounce Denounce vs. Renounce By Mark Nichol What’s the difference between denounce and renounce? Their related Latin ancestors shared a neutral sense, but in English they acquired exclusively condemnatory connotations. Denounce is externally directed one denounces another’s words or deeds while renounce is internally focused one renounces one’s own viewpoints or actions, or is called on to do so. The Latin precursor of denounce, denuntiare, means simply â€Å"to announce† â€Å"to proclaim,† or â€Å"to command,† although in ancient Rome it could also have a negative connotation. Borrowed into English from the Old French verb denoncier, it is invariably accusatory. Denunciate, a more direct descendant of the Latin term, is rare but serves as the basis of the noun form, denunciation. Renounce comes from the Old French term renoncer, in turn derived from the Latin word renuntiare, which is synonymous with denuntiare in the neutral sense, but the English word means â€Å"to abandon a viewpoint or philosophy†; synonyms are forswear and repudiate. The root element of these words, nunt, is related to the Latin word nuntius, meaning â€Å"messenger,† from which was formed the Italian word nuncio, which refers to an envoy of the head of the Roman Catholic Church; it was borrowed into English with this meaning. Two other words formed from this root are announce (the original Latin prefix was ad-, meaning â€Å"to,† as in advertise literally, â€Å"to turn toward† so that it means â€Å"to bring a message†) and pronounce (â€Å"to put an announcement forth†). The latter word’s past-tense verb form, pronounced, also became an adjective meaning â€Å"marked† or â€Å"emphatic.† A variation on announce, more faithful to the original Latin through its association with Catholicism, is annunciate, which is rare, though the equally uncommon annunciation is best known as a proper noun for a church holiday commemorating the angel Gabriel’s announcement to the Virgin Mary that she would bear a child. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Misused Words category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:100 Mostly Small But Expressive InterjectionsDo you "orient" yourself, or "orientate" yourself?â€Å"Least,† â€Å"Less,† â€Å"More,† and â€Å"Most†

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Summar of the Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Summar of the - Essay Example Bi-directional case studies were conducted to assess the impact at back end and at the clients end. This paper does not limit its research to one area, rather it is based on the study of the content assessment, the technology incorporated and the algorithm used towards the data collection techniques. The categorized usage of blogs has seen implementation from the main leads of the industry. One similar example of its categorized usage came about from Microsoft when they implemented MSDN. The core function of this blog was to provide the technical platform of the users and the players associated. This was one of the broad line major approaches undertaken in recent years towards overall expansion of the blogging field. Apart from this other major efforts and seminars conducted towards further expansion of this field came about in 2008, 2009 in the form of TREC conference. The purpose of this entire activity is to bring uniformity and more effective outlook to the usage of blogs. The broad sectoring would allow for a more active and interactive outlook of the blogging entity making it useful towards different clients. Organizing the blogs can help the companies in many ways. This in turn would allow the companies working according to the needs of the clients. Through the desired segmentation and organization of the data and information of the blog websites that are spread all over, the companies and their targeting approach will allow for promoting their ideas at the right place. In other words, it would enable them reaching to the right kind of clients at the right time and in the right manner. This is the core idea proposed by the research paper at hand. Critical decisions can be made with regard to the areas of investment and the areas of clients requirements fulfillment. Undertaking this task would bring along number of

SOUTHWEST AIRLINES Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

SOUTHWEST AIRLINES - Essay Example This in turn led to a correction in the industry’s long-haul pricing structure where at times airlines were forced to offer prices lower that their costs. The deregulation of the airline industry in 1978 has been a failure and the airlines are more like public utilities than ordinary businesses (Roberts, 2008). SWA operated out of Texas and was doing much better than the regulated airlines because of fewer regulations in the state. The industry today is full of uncertainties with airlines merger becoming common. The greatest strength of SWA is its superior asset utilization. Its flight schedule structuring is such that its turnaround is 20 minutes. SWA flies its planes 20 to 30 percent more hours than other major airlines. They have fewer employees per aircraft, fly fewer passengers per employee and have more available seat miles per employee (Pfeffer, 2005). They do not use the standard hub-and-spoke model like most carriers but have the a point-to-point route network and is thus able to minimize the domino effect of flight delays thereby maximizing asset utilization (Kearney, 2008). Another major strength is highly motivated workforce. SWA achieved success not from economies of scale but the airline is known for its very productive, very motivated and unionized workforce (Bacon, 2001). They encourage individuality and they encourage leadership. The employees always come first with the company and the customers a respected second (Miles & Mangold, 2005). A failure is accepted as natural and pardonable at SWA (Bunz & Maes, 1998). They are encouraged to take responsibility for their acts and celebrate mistakes as well as triumphs. The culture of the firm and the dedication to the employees sees the airline through any obstacles and challenges (Singh, 2002). The recent soaring of fuel price has disturbed the airlines industry globally. Eight US airlines have gone out of business in less than a year, one is in bankruptcy and many others are

Friday, October 18, 2019

Interior Design Program Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Interior Design Program - Essay Example That is what people want; to adjust with environment. Adjustment takes place in two basic steps: one is judgment where one tries to inspect the level of satisfaction by comparison and another is selection which comes into mind if first one directs to do so. Fashionable clothes, jewelries, rich food etc are common example of this. But what about shelter All these luxurious wants go to slum if you don't have place to take deep breath. After daily hard work when we return home, we look for peace, relaxation and happiness. It's a place which refreshes our mind and gives us energy to face daily problems. So home also needs designing and proper arrangements with all facilities within that in order to bring ease and comfort in our life. This work can be beautifully done with help of interior designer. Nowadays Interior designer has more responsibilities, as everybody has different needs and level of satisfaction; and he needs to satisfy customers' thinking after maintaining his own constrai nts (budget, profit, house area etc...). Design is a term related to creativity. Interior design is a process to improve human interaction with the living environment. An interior designer is a qualified person who works on interior spaces to improve its quality and with a vision to enhance the lifestyle of human being, making it healthier and safer (Znoy, Jason A, 2004). It's not about profession and revenues; but the art reflects to his personal life too as society is not a group of families rather individuals! One dominating factor comes and that is financial effort. One designer will do the work for mankind but a large class of people is not in a position to adopt it. Here comes the challenge. What's that contribution where all are not getting the chance to feel pleasure So, design must be flexible and easily acceptable. Nowadays People misunderstand with the meaning of renovation. Many historical structures are being demolished and replaced by modern efficient high-rise buildings. Renovation is part of designing, but doesn't mean removing ancient things. Destruction is not the ultimate way to resolve problem. A doctor never hurts patient but fights against his diseases. Removing these structures, means rubbing out all the histories associated with them. So solution to this conflict between new needs and old culture is restoring and recycling, which bring to sustainability. Renovation needs new resources to replace old ones, but available resource cannot meet wants. In order to get a green country we have to give our hands together forgetting about me but not us. We should remember that child is a father of man. Future is unpredictable, but not impossible to visualize. Doing is believing and we have to believe in what we are doing. As Designing combines all different perspectives to bring out an innovation, teaching interior design and spreading knowledge is very important. Today's challenges are inspiration for designer to come up with solutions that can help the world. Conclusion It's the time now to think higher and dream bigger. We are those drops of rain which can flood the whole world. Interior design gives us the awareness of what is happening in the real life. The only thing that is

Business for transport Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Business for transport - Essay Example These are the times when the organizations have unique resources and skills which help to satisfy the needs and requirements in specific mannerisms that are difficult to emulate. Michael Porter’s principle of differentiation is therefore something that takes a great amount of understanding before it could be deciphered in the most apt way. The generic business strategy regimes play their roles well so that the differentiation factor is embedded in a proper way. What differentiation does in essence is to get the message straight to the generic business hubs that it is there for creating the vital difference which will rule the roost within business at the end of the day. The target markets would be given the best possible solution in terms of the differentiation strategy because it helps shape up the business realms from a number of different angles. The differentiation strategy is always a good undertaking because it offers the business the alternatives that are much desired a nd which shall bring in the sound results in the long run scheme of things. Since differentiation is entirely dependent on the intricate details of the products themselves, it would be important to make a note of the generic business realms before delving into such discussions. The differentiation strategy helps the products to compete in such a manner that success is written all over it. This is so because the differentiation aspects are focused on highlighting the exact changes that could be mustered up within the products, and how these would embody accomplishment for the specific business hubs. There are the two different variants which are termed within the differentiation strategy. These include the shareholder value model which signifies the timing of the use of the specialized knowledge which creates a differentiation advantage until the knowledge remains distinctive. Similarly, the unlimited resources model within the differentiation strategy makes use of a large base of re sources which allows an organization to outwit the competitors (Porter, 1998). The differentiation strategy is applicable within the domains of the broad market scope and uniqueness competency which remain significant nonetheless. Some of the most successful examples of the differentiation strategy which have been employed within the generic business realms of present times include the Asian Paints, Apple Computer, Mercedes-Benz, Hero Honda, HLL and Nike. Conclusion Michael Porter has basically described a category which consists of three different types of strategies which are in common use, and among these, differentiation strategy remains one of the most sought after within the generic business discussions. The strategy coined by Michael Porter is a comprehensive one which encloses quite a few significant pointers – all of which suggest one determinant within the business realms or the other. b) Critically assess the concept of differentiation and its relevance to business strategy in the transport and travel sector, with reference to EITHER luxury hotel train companies (e.g. Orient Express), OR cruise shipping companies (e.g. Royal Caribbean). Introduction Differentiation within the business strategy of Royal Caribbean is such that it has 5 different brands running under its folds. One more brand is under

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Place Branding Research Proposal Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Place Branding - Research Proposal Example As a consumer, one gets to come across several brand names as part of our daily lives. Names such as Microsoft, Coca-cola, Mercedes, and Harvard have all become ingrained in our minds as popular entities in their respective domains. Much of the effort driven towards popularizing these brand names have been successful largely through strategically conceived efforts, which also symbolizes the leadership positions that these brand names occupy at a global level. In the modern day, governments across the world have begun to look at branding and its associated marketing techniques as a means to market and sell their geographical regions to the rest of the world whereby the emphasis is concentrated on enhancing the international profile with an intent to attract more investment from foreign players and make such regions popular as economic powerhouses for commerce, trade, and tourism (Malcolm Allan, 2005). In a similar way, the government of the Republic of Nigeria is in the process of initiating several campaigns that aim to popularize the country and its image to people and companies across the world. part of this effort has been due to the rising awareness amongst a few African nations such as South Africa and Uganda to market themselves across the world (Eugene Jaffe, 2006). In accordance with this policy, the Nigerian government, through its ministry of Information and National Orientation has launched programmes such as the ‘The Heart of Africa’ project, which is based on the concept of Place Branding. The proposed research study will attempt to study the various initiatives undertaken by the Nigerian government along the lines of ‘Place Branding’ and will work towards studying them in the form of a case study. The above discussion clearly divides branding into two classes namely product branding and place branding.  In comparison to the former, the latter is still a burgeoning discipline and most of the literature that describes place branding is still in a loosely embedded format.  

Cultural Sensitivity Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Cultural Sensitivity - Essay Example Health care disparities encompass inequalities in regards to rank, social status and age. Disparities in the health care system are closely linked to equity. There are various factors that lead to the differences among individuals. The US population is highly multi-ethnic, and it is mandatory to understand the various cultures (Diller, 10). In spite of the advancements made in the health care system, there are increasing differences in health status among Hispanics, Native Americans, African Americans, Haitians, Jamaicans and Pacific Islanders (Diller, 10). Additionally, the challenges facing the healthcare sector have increased over the years as the population becomes more ethnically diverse. The future of the health care system in the US will be influenced significantly by advancements in ethnic minorities.The composition of the US population has been changing dramatically over the years. This is true from the statistics shown by the recent studies conducted on the population. In t he past decade, there was a relative increase in ethnic groups as follows: non-Hispanic White 5.5%, African American, 16.4%, Hispanic, 65.3% and Pacific Islanders 123.5% (Diller, 11). If this development continues in the future, the number of ethnic minorities will continue rising. Statistics from the census conducted in 2000 reinforce this argument. This further emphasizes the need for cultural competency in the health care system. The table below shows the expected figures by 2042 (Diller, 11). Composition of the US population Ethnic group 2009 (%) 2050 projections (%) Native Americans 1.6 2.0 Asians 5 9 Hispanics 15 30 Non- Hispanic Whites 66 46 Source: Diller, 12 There are five key challenges facing health practitioners in ensuring cultural sensitivity. The main challenge is communication; different ethnic groups have their native languages and hence may not communicate fluently in English. This calls for the need of interpreters for various languages (Weinstein, 447). Secondly, patients from different groups are conservative and are reluctant to talk about sexual matters and other personal problems. Thirdly, there exist clinical differences among the different ethnic groups, for example, the prevalence to some diseases including hypertension and diabetes. The fourth challenge is ethics; Medical practitioners should have respect for different cultures and beliefs while handling their patients. Last but not least is the problem of trust; Patients from different ethnic groups tend to be afraid of the figures in authority and fail to trust the care givers in hospitals. The issue of cultural diversity in the health care sector is here to stay, and there are numerous solutions to the problems emanating from this diversity. Health care providers should

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Place Branding Research Proposal Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Place Branding - Research Proposal Example As a consumer, one gets to come across several brand names as part of our daily lives. Names such as Microsoft, Coca-cola, Mercedes, and Harvard have all become ingrained in our minds as popular entities in their respective domains. Much of the effort driven towards popularizing these brand names have been successful largely through strategically conceived efforts, which also symbolizes the leadership positions that these brand names occupy at a global level. In the modern day, governments across the world have begun to look at branding and its associated marketing techniques as a means to market and sell their geographical regions to the rest of the world whereby the emphasis is concentrated on enhancing the international profile with an intent to attract more investment from foreign players and make such regions popular as economic powerhouses for commerce, trade, and tourism (Malcolm Allan, 2005). In a similar way, the government of the Republic of Nigeria is in the process of initiating several campaigns that aim to popularize the country and its image to people and companies across the world. part of this effort has been due to the rising awareness amongst a few African nations such as South Africa and Uganda to market themselves across the world (Eugene Jaffe, 2006). In accordance with this policy, the Nigerian government, through its ministry of Information and National Orientation has launched programmes such as the ‘The Heart of Africa’ project, which is based on the concept of Place Branding. The proposed research study will attempt to study the various initiatives undertaken by the Nigerian government along the lines of ‘Place Branding’ and will work towards studying them in the form of a case study. The above discussion clearly divides branding into two classes namely product branding and place branding.  In comparison to the former, the latter is still a burgeoning discipline and most of the literature that describes place branding is still in a loosely embedded format.  

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

What did the ancient Hebrews(ancestors of modern Jewish people)believe Essay

What did the ancient Hebrews(ancestors of modern Jewish people)believe at the end the Babylonian Captivity, or around 500 BCE - Essay Example In this outline, we look at three major prongs the nature of God, Yahweh, the core value of the faith (Torah) and the organization of the faith at around 500 BC. As Hansen and Kenneth (53) note, in the ancient Hebrew, God was a supreme being. He posed a lot more than just one personality. To the Jewish tradition, God was and still is a lawgiver, a judge, a liberator, a creator and many more titles all of whom manifested depending on the specific situation or a specific point in time. To them Gods way of doing, things were marvellous in their own way. This definition almost cuts across to the view of the Christians, however in this case, the concept of Yahweh changed depending on a specific point in time. This is why the concept of God at around 500 BC saw him as a supreme being. The tradition recognised there might have been the existence of other gods. In the traditional context God was seen as limitless however as Jacobs Louis notes, there were three prongs all of which focused on giving the nature of God from different perspectives. These are the Maimonides, who did note that God had prior knowledge while man was seen as free; secondly Gersonides, noted that man is free, while god does not have the sole knowledge and lastly, Hasdai Crescas, noted that god has the sole knowledge of every knowledge. Although there may have been people who may have believed in the existence of God, There are times when these views obscure the true nature of God hence the rise of various groups all with their view about God. Examples of such groups were the atheist (Hansen and Kenneth 54). The study of Torah guided the core values of faith in the Hebrew religion. The Jewish has applied the same torah in the current period, and it is the basis that creates a direct linkage to what was done in the olden times to the current period. It is considered imperative (mitzvah) in the Jewish tradition to learn and uphold the values of the law that guides both the faith and creates

Monday, October 14, 2019

School System Essay Example for Free

School System Essay I. Introduction In this chapter, the researchers would like to propose an automated billing system in AMA Computer Learning Center (ACLC) College of Gapan City, Nueva Ecija. In our generation so many things are different. The advent of technology has changed the way we live, work and spends leisure time. Computer was considered the lifeblood of society; they are everywhere. And the advancement in discoveries, both in hardware and software, keep coming, day in and day out. Technology changes and improves at a rapid pace and companies and institutions have cope with it. This is because as the latest knowledge of development in computer technology grows people’s standard increase. They seek and crave for better and more efficient ways to accomplish tedious task. The group of Companies was built upon the dream of the late Amable M. Aguiluz Sr. (AMA), Auditor General and National Treasurer during the term of President Diosdado Macapagal, to build an institution that would provide world-class education to Filipino y0uth. That dream bore fruit on October 20, 1980 when his son Dr. Amable R. Aguiluz V. (ARA), established the AMA Institute of Computer Studies and blazed the trail for popular computer education in the country. Originally located along Show Boulevard, the pioneering school offered EDP Fundamentals, Basic Programming and Technology Career courses. In June 1981, AMA Computer College (AMACC) was launched offering a four-year degree course in BS Computer Science – the first to be offered in the country. From only 13 students, the population of AMACC surged to 600 in 1983 and to 1985. To meet the growing demand for computer courses, AMACC established its first campus in Makati in 1983. A second campus followed in 1986 in project 8, Quezon City. In 1987, AMA Computer Learning Center (ACLC) was established to offer short courses in computer programming and two-year technical vocational courses. Today, there are today more than 100 learning centers nationwide. In the same year, AMA Basic Education was formed to offer courses elementary, high school and eventually pre-school education. Now known as the St. Augustine International School, its branches are located in Metro Manila, Laguna, Cebu, and Davao. In 1996, AMA set up the AMA Telecommunications and Electronics Learning Center (AMATEL) – the country’s first-ever telecommunications school. It is now called AMA International Institute of Technology (AIIT). In 1998, ABE International Business was established to offer courses in Hotel and Restaurant Management (HRM), Business Administration and computer-related courses. Today, ABE has several branches nationwide. ABE is an international school affiliated with ABE in the United Kingdom. It offers not just local, but also international diploma and international practicum program. The AMA school network also expanded overseas with branches in Los Angeles, California; Manama; Bahrain; Bangladesh; China; and Hong Kong. In 2000, AMAES launched its most ambitious expansion program with no less than 14 branches being set up nationwide. To help it graduates finds employment, AMA established in the same year its own manpower placement agency called INFOTECH Professional Services Inc. The year 2002 saw AMA expanding into maritime education, medicine, nursing, care-giving and allied health courses. Now, the Norwegian maritime Academy (NMA), the AMA school of Medicine (ASM), and the St. Augustine School of Nursing (SASN) are making a mark in their respective fields with IT-based curricula. AMA Education System (AMAES) – the umbella for AMA schools, currently boasts of more than 200 branches nationwide and in key foreign cities. It has proudly produced more than 150,000 professionals who have been gainfully employed locally and overseas. On August 20, 2002, AMA was granted University status by the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) – a well-earned tribute to the first ISO-certificated computer educational Institution in the Philippines. Founding Chairman Dr. Amable R. Aguiluz V was installed as the first AMA University president. The billing system throughout the school has relied on pens and papers. The information of the students with regards to their billings, school fees, projected additional expenses, and other expenses within the year are done computing using pens and papers, they have a computer to encode the billing information, using the V-Look UP and Microsoft Office Excel 2007. Due to manual usage, they noticed that certain problems cannot be avoided like data redundancies, missing records of the students. Furthermore, some could not be able to handle the massive volume of the students. Under the old manual billing scenarios, getting rid of paper improves efficiency, reduces human errors and allow information to flow to their system without a time consuming data input process. And also a higher student turnaround as enrollees will be saved faster. And as the population of ACLC continues to grow, many difficulties in handling their billing in a manual process and one of the solution in this problem is to make their manual billing into a computerized system. With this, the proponent of this research sought to find the way to facilitate all the students billing records â€Å"an automated billing system† to replace the manual operations. The developer wants to improve especially to meet the needs of ACLC, also through this system, billing information is easily obtained hence, school tends to rely less in manual operations. II. Statement of the Problems The proponents would like to develop the ACLC to address the following problems of their school in terms of their billing system. 1. How the proposed enrollment system will help the school? 2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the current manual enrollment to the proposed enrollment system? 3. How the proposed system helps the daily operations of the school? 4. How can ACLC come up to the solution that may possibly solve their manual enrollment process? 5. Who are those beneficiaries of the proposed billing system? 6. What are the difference in using the current and the proposed system? III. Objectives of the Study Creating a computerized enrollment system of ACLC is the main objective of the study. The following are the specific goals: 1. To develop the system that will minimize the processing time in accessing records, and calculating fees of students. 2. To provide a proper computer-based database for ACLC. 3. To build a user-friendly system that produces accurate and error-free data results. 4. To monitor the integration of the different operations, which includes billing data, database system, and payments, it is a need for computerization. 5. To secure all the billings, payments, fees of the students. 6. To lighten the load of the staff in accessing records. 7. To improve their billing system. IV. Scope and Delimitation The study covers the billing process in ACLC (AMA Computer Learning System). The centered on means of speeding up the billing report, computation of transactions of billing. This study will be a great help in converting the manual system to computerized system for great speed retrieval. The system developed in such way that the company will be able to obtain the following: Maintain the complete files in computerized form, prepare billing report in an easiest way, updates record time to time. The proposed system has the limitations, does not include time to time printing of transactions and does not retrieve data if have power interruption. V. Significance of the Study In the development of the study, the main goal of the developer is to develop a program that could be beneficial to as many people as possible. The computerized billing system is developed to provide constructive significance to the following: The Registrar – Student registration or enrolling will going to be much easier because of the proposed system, saving student files and adding subjects is convenient and faster. The Cashier To make their work easy and also they could handle all the billings of the students without time consuming data input process and can make the computation of every transaction in the easiest way. The Proponents the development of the system challenges the programming skills of the researchers whereby searching for a new programming platform to make the common and simple program through a more sophisticated and advance approach. Students they will accommodate in a short period of time during setting up their bill immediately. Management of the School – it helps to organize and supervise its company especially the students who give fund to operate the school properly in the process of giving correct billing. Parents – it helps them to know the total bill and load that their sons or daughters have for the whole semester and they are enrolled VI. Hypothesis of the Study The researchers will provide some predictions about the proposed billing system: 1. The proposed enrollment system will upgrade its manual enrollment process into an automated enrollment system. 2. It will lessen the works of the staff/ personnel through the help of proposed billing system. 3. The proposed system helps in minimizing the time and efforts and gives a convenient, more accurate, reliable, and there would be a consistent operations and procedures. 4. Through the help of proposed system, it will decrease the data handling errors of the students in their billings and information. 5. The proposed enrollment system could be the answer to the problems of the school in processing their billings. 6. The proposed enrollment system can change the current data management more efficient, secured, save more space for the office, handle or search student information easier and lessen data reiteration.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

the performance of Dubai Islamic Bank

the performance of Dubai Islamic Bank Dubai Islamic bank is a bank that offers services related to Islamic sharia. In the year 2009 the total revenue gained by the bank was 5,133 (million AED) as compared to the report of FY 2008 the net revenue had decreased by 2.6%, and the total profit earned by the bank was 1,207.49 (million AED) a net decrease of 22.31% as compared to the FY 2008, with the total assets of AED 90.14 billion in the year 2010, the bank stands among one of the largest Islamic banks in the world, currently the bank has a customer base of 1.2 billion which is quite appraisable customer base when compared with other banks. The share price of DIB is computed to 2.22 AED (per share) updated latest to 31st march, 2011, the net value of the market cap is evaluated to 8,429 (million AED), the enterprise value is evaluated to 7,450 (million AED), and the net shares outstanding is evaluated to 3,797 (million AED). The net capital base of Dubai Islamic bank counts up to AED 10.53 billion as of December 2010, which is 17.2% higher than the previous year? B. Strategic posture 1. Mission the Dubai Islamic bank is currently providing services like retail banking, private banking, johara banking, corporate banking, mobile banking, phone banking, online banking, sharia board services, structure trade finance, treasury and investment, project financing, syndication services, wealth management services, business banking, investment banking, contracting finance services, and real estate finance. The DIB is incorporated in all these services because they want to expand their scope in terms of banking and investment services in almost every field, so as to compete with other players in the business. 2. Objectives The companys main objective is to setup its market all across the world and to expand them as much as possible, and to increase its customer base so as to increase their revenues and popularity in the global market. 3. Strategies The main objective of DIB is to diversify and manage organic growth, as growth in any sector is a must for a company especially a banking corporation where the opportunities are endless for any corporation DIB is focusing majorly on the diversifying of its business, and this strategy is very much consistent with the missions that is stated by the bank. The other strategies of DIB includes expansion of its branches and the increase in its overall customer base, this strategy of DIB helps DIB to expand its trade in other countries of the world too. The increase in overall customer base is an obvious strategy of any banking corporation as the profit and revenues earned by any banking firm is dependent on the issue that more the customers the bank has the more is its profit earned. 4. Policies The major policies of DIB includes conversions of key Islamic economic policies into firm practices for the need of mankind and to welfare them with the Islamic policies, the policies of the DIB is consistent with the mission, objectives and strategies of the corporation as the end user of any firm is the consumer itself, and if the consumer is not happy with the companys policies and services then every strategy of that company is vain, and also the companys policies are consistent with every external and internal environmental features. The companys major strategy includes the expansion of branches and the addition of new customers to the companys customer base; these policies reflect the companys international and global trading strategy. 2. Corporate governance A. The board of governance The board of governance of the corporation consists of H.E. Mohammad Ibrahim abdulrahman alshaibani as the chairman, H.E. Sheikh Khalid bin zayed al nehayan as the vice chairman, ahmad Mohammad saeed bin humaidan as the director, saeed Mubarak Abdulla Mohammad al muhairi as the director, abdulrahman hareb Rashed alhareb as the director, tariq humaid matar mohammad al tayer as the director. They all are the external employees of the corporation i.e. they are non-executive members of the corporation i.e. they dont take part in any decision making processes of the corporation. This group of executives consists of the top management of the company. The internal or the senior management members of the coporation consist mainly of Abdulla ali al hamli as the chief executive officer, ahmed fathy al-gebali as the chief financial officer of the corporation. These persons are the part of the senior management i.e. they have influence in all the decisions making and strategy making discussions and processes. These executives comprise of the internal management or the senior management of the company and involved in major decision making processes of the corporation. All the internal and the external members of the corporation that is discussed above especially the non-executive members hold significant part in the stocks. The stocks are publically held by some of the major acquisitions are held by many other peoples and companies, also the stock is traded in the market, with some of the board members acquiring major shares of the corporation. Some board members are the permanent board members of the corporation and they are in the non-executive group of the corporation and thereby they are the permanent members of the company, but the senior management members are not-permanent members of the corporation, the chief financial officer of the corporation is the newest member on the board of directors as he had joined the company in the year 2011 itself. The top management consists of chairman itself and the other directors of the company, though the non-executive members dont take part in some decisions but in major decisions like acquisitions and budget related discussions their involvement is must. B. Top management The top management of the company comprise of H.E. mohammad Ibrahim as the chairman, H.E. sheikh khaled bin zayed al nehayan as the vice chairman, ahmed mohammad saeed bin humaidan as the director, saeed Mubarak Abdulla Mohammad al muhairi as the director, abdulrahman hareb Rashed alhareb as the director, they all are part of the non-executive board. But the major part in the decision making policies are taken by the senior management group or the top management group i.e. the CEO and the CFO of the corporation. The board members of the corporation have a significant knowledge of the international market and of market policies and as the key peoples are experienced enough therefore they contribute a significant amount of knowledge to the corporation and thereby taking the corporation to the next level. The companys senior management is highly skilled and are capable of taking the company to a new height, the CFO for ex. had joined the corporation in the year 2011 itself, the CFOs profile shows that he has a very good managerial base, he had worked for boubyan bank as a CFO and various other investment houses, thereby he had gained enough experience and he had served for many companies therefore his skills must be remarkable. The companys senior management had developed a systematic strategy to be implied, some of them are global acquisitions and expansion of business. The companys senior management interacts with the lower level managers and the board of directors quite frequently as they are keen to make new strategies and decisions for the company and they believe in including everyone in the process of decision making. The companys decisions are quite ethical as the companys main motive is to use the teaching of Islam for the welfare of mankind in economic terms. The top management is highly skilled and is expected to survive the company in future and to cope up with any problem affecting the corporation. 3. External environment: opportunities and threats A. natural physical environment Apart from banking the bank is also engaged in products and services like textile products, aluminum fixtures, motor vehicles. Products like Aluminum fixtures and textiles depend on the sustainability of the environment i.e. textiles are made from cotton and other natural products and aluminum are obtained through mining therefore the climate of the place plays a very important role in the development of products of DIB. Apart from the climate one more natural force that affects the manufacturing of DIBs products is availability of water in adequate quantity, and natural disasters. The opportunities for DIB in these sectors are limitless but the only thing that matters is that how they could implement their strategies into their products and services. All these forces have different affects in different countries of the world for ex. climatic and weather conditions are different in different countries of world, for ex. in Africa and Asia where climate are suitable for the growth of cotton and jute products, moreover natural disasters and calamities also depends on the location of the manufacturing plants of DIB for ex. in countries like Japan, and Hawaii where earthquake and volcanoes are frequent. Solar winds and sun spots also affect the crop as it destroys the crop. B. societal environment The major factors that are affecting the product manufacturing are economical forces, technological forces, political forces, and socio-cultural forces. The economic forces are the force that defines a corporations power in the market in terms of revenues and share price, therefore economic forces are also very important forces that influence the manufacturing of products and services. The technological forces are also one of the most important forces which affect a companys manufacturing of products and other technological processes. The other forces that affects a companys manufacturing of products and services are political forces, these are the forces which comes into play when the company had to make major political decisions about its company when trading in own country or in other country. The socio cultural forces are the forces that define the environment that surrounds the company, i.e. in UAE the socio cultural environment are different whereas if DIB will setup its branches in other countries of world like India, or USA then they have to face a total different environment and that will affect the bank. All these forces varies at other places of the world as the technological advancement of one country can be very good and DIB can take the best use of that, and the political forces also depends on the type of country they are dealing with for ex. whether the country is an democracy, monarchy, anarchy etc. all these forces plays a very vital role in the development of a company in any country, especially for DIB it is a very important factor and the strategies of DIB should include techniques to tackle with political situations in other countries. Socio-cultural is by far the most important aspect for DIB as DIB is based on the teachings of Quran and believes in its principles, therefore there may exist a line between them and customers when the bank operates in non-Muslim country. C. task environment There are six major forces that drive a companys industry competition these are: Threat of new entrants: these forces vary from country to country, these forces are of high risks because there have been chances always that new entrants enters the market, and if the quality of products and services provided by them are proved to be good then obviously the older players has to suffer, more or less. Bargaining power of buyers: the bargaining power of buyers depends from country to country and according to situation, this force is rated as a medium force as not many buyers bargain on products i.e. good in quality. Threat of substitute products and services: the threat of substitute products and services are always high as any company can come up with an idea of better substituted product, and if that product is better than the companys product then the company has to suffer. Bargaining power of suppliers: bargaining power of suppliers is high as the supplier is the person whose quality of raw material decides the overall quality of product. Rivalry among competing firms: the rivalry among competing firms is of medium type as the rivalry depends on the number of competitors in the market and the quality of products they manufacture. Relative power of unions, governments, special interest groups, etc. have a high affect on the company as the companys trade at any place is subjected to the fact that they have good or not so good relations with the government of that country. D. Summary of external factors Socio-economic and task environment are the most important for the company and to the industry in which it is currently competing. Sustainability issues will be important for the company in the future. 4. Internal environment: strength and weakness A. corporate structure The decision making authority is centralized around one group of person which are known as the top management of the company. The corporation is organized on the basis of all these factors like functions, projects, and geography. The structure of the organization is pretty much clear as there is only one major group of decision makers and that is constituted under the top management of the company. The companys current structure consists of highly skilled international level CEOs and CFOs and as the companys main objective and strategy are consistent with the expansion of the company, therefore the present structure of the company is consistent with the firms international operations. This type of structure can be seen in similar organizations as every company has a top level of management that decides all the strategies and procedures for any company. B. corporate culture The culture of DIB is well emerged culture and is composed of shared beliefs, expectations and values. The current culture of DIB is very much consistent with the corporations current objectives, strategies, policies and programs as the major objective of the corporation is to expand their business. Environmental stability means a lot to DIB as some of their products are related to environment and other natural factors their work culture is defined by the environmental objectives. The corporation is well known for its banking basics and current position in the world, the bank is one of the top banks in this world to offer banking services related to Islamic sharia. The bank is internationalizing itself i.e. it is expanding their trade in other countries of the world. The culture is somewhat not very consistent with the employees background i.e. they will prefer those peoples who believes in Islamic sharia principles and according to them who have Islamic ethics. Thus much diversity in background is not encountered in the bank. The bank usually acts in Muslim based countries like UAE, Pakistan, Iran, Iraq etc. therefore it does not have much problems in this countries, but if we have to consider other countries that is not Muslim oriented then the corporation might find some problem in coping up the culture of that country. C. corporate resources 1. Marketing A. the current marketing objective of the company is to expand their market all over the world, and to increase the number of customers. Strategies that DIB is applying to complete this objective are clear and are consistent with the objectives and strategies of the company and are not implied just for mere implications. The 4ps i.e. product, price, place, promotion are the fields where the bank is doing exceptionally well, however there have been an ir-regulation performance of the bank for ex. the net income of the bank is 2,696 (AED m) in 2005, 4,577 (AED m) in 2006, 6,083 (AED m) in 2007, 5,270 (AED m) in 2008, and 5,133 (AED m) in 2009. The market of the bank is not very big in the current scenario but it is doing very good in Muslim countries and considered as one of the best muslim banks in the world. The bank is gaining its market in the muslim countries and loosing it in non- muslim countries. A high percentage of revenue were collected from the developed region as the number of wealthy customers who can take benefit of the services provided by DIB is more in developed regions. The bank is not consistent considering the revenue generated by it in the five year period from 2005-2009. The current and past performance of the corporation is the base for its future performance; the bank has to make strategies to increase their performance. Companys marketing performance is very good though they are facing a competition from leading banks like abu dhabi commercial bank, emirates NBD bank. Though the DIB operates on Islamic principles but the managers of DIB is still using traditional marketing techniques in terms of product lifecycle, market segmentation, market research etc. Usually DIB dont have to face different culture therefore it is not very difficult for them to market them in other regions or countries. Marketing manager considers all the major aspects of environmental sustainability when making decisions, a marketing managers role is very crucial in strategic making process as he has to suggest marketing policies when trading in some other country. 2. Finance The corporations current financial objective is to increase their net revenue collected, all the financial strategies, objectives, and policies are based on this fact. These facts are clearly stated and implied just not for the sake of show off but performing as well. These financial strategies if implied will be proved to be beneficial for the company. The companys efficiency ratio increased to .43 according to the stats of sep-2010, the debt to capital ratio increased by a ratio of 9.91 according to the data of sep-2010, the earning per share of the company increased by a ratio of 0.07 according to the data of sep-2010. The earnings per share increased by a ratio of 0.32. the operating cost of the company went up by 33.88% of sales. The investors expect that the price of the shares will go up in the current fiscal year. The trend in the companys financial stability is unstable i.e. it was never been consistent. No significant difference was reported when statements were calculated in constant versus reported dollars. The past trends will surely affect the future performance of the company as the new CFO will develop strategy that will cope up the net loss. The finance of the company is by far considered good but the company can very well utilize their resources to increase the financial stability. The company is facing challenge from some of Dubais lead Muslim banks in terms of finance, the financial managers are nowadays using traditional finance concepts and techniques to solve their finance related problems. The financial situation of the company is different in different parts of the world depending on the economy of that place for ex. developed and developing regions. Financial managers role is very crucial in the strategic management process, as finance is the most important section in a banking sector. 3. Research and development The corporation besides concentrating on its banking services is also indulged in core sectors like textiles, and aluminum fixtures. These strategies are meant to increase the products and services of the company and to increase their business. These strategies are consistent with the corporations mission, objectives, strategies and policies. The technology that they use to implement their policies plays a great role in manufacturing processes. The RD of the companys new services gives the company a competitive advantage, the return from the new products and services is not much because it is the newest field in the companys yard. The RD of the company depends on the environmental and climatic conditions of that country, companys technological discontinuity plays a vital role because the technology plays the most vital role in the manufacturing processes. The RD manager plays a very role in the companys strategic management process. 4. Operations and logistics The companys current manufacturing/service objectives, strategies and policies are clearly implemented and implied from performance and budget, the companys policies and strategies are in accordance with the companys main policies, strategy, and objectives. The company has to face problems in the external and internal environment regarding logistics and operations. The corporation deals with their products with suppliers who provide them with the raw materials, international export of materials is done in products and services. The company is currently engaged in flexible manufacturing, equipments are of new technology. Transportation facilities are available in most of the parts. The manufacturing and logistics of the company is affected by the various factors like natural disasters and climatic conditions. Operations manager are using new technology and services to evaluate and improve current technology. 5. Human resource management The corporations current HRM practice is to utilize their human resource to expand the companys business and to increase the customer base, along with introducing and developing new products. The net income per employee is 175,151 AED of the DIB, it is considered a descent income therefore it is clear that the company is very conserve towards their employees and do good care of them. The HRM of the company has the capability to increase their net profit and to affect other factors positively. The corporation is paying the employees heavily and they are giving them other incentives too, but other competitors are also conserved related to their employees. The HRM manager is utilizing the resources to the highest and often created strategies to do well in future like engaging their human resources in other products and services, and introduction of new posts. The company doesnt seems to have a diversify workforce from all over the world, but whatever they have with them they are managing them quite efficiently. Outsourcing plays a very important role in HR planning, as outsourcing provides manpower to complete objectives and tasks related to the company. Moreover the HR manager plays a very important role in the strategic management process, as every strategy requires manpower and the best use of human resources. 6. Information technology The organizations current IT objectives, strategies and policies includes modernization of all technologies in the context of IT, and this strategy is very well in accordance with the modern era in which the company is operating. The company has a proper database management system and analyst who can make changes in the database whenever required. After the use of modernized technologies it is very much predictable that the company will do well in the future regarding the advantages of the softwares used. All the leading banks in Dubai is using IT as a tool for performing processes and for services therefore DIB is facing a cut-throat competition in this field and must have to look upon for new technological services and tools. DIB has got a place in the worlds internet database and the information is very well conveyed regarding the company on the internet. IT manager is playing a very important role in developing the companys strategies as, many processes in the corporation is dependent on IT. D. Summary of internal factors Marketing, human resource and financing are the core-competencies for the company at present. The distinctive competencies of the corporation is its IT and logistics and operations. Finance, marketing and human resource are the most important factors that the company are engaged in presently. Human resource is the functions that are most suitable for outsourcing. 5. Analysis of strategic factors A. situational analysis The main analysis that affects the companys present and future performance are the finance performance, marketing, human resource and the sustainability issues. B. review of mission and objectives The current mission and objectives are appropriate for the companys progress but to some extent because the net profit, revenue generated and the share prices of the company is decreasing, therefore they need to have a look at its finance and marketing areas. If the finance and marketing sections are thoroughly reviewed an corrected then the corporation will grow larger momentum in the future. 6. Strategic alternatives and recommended strategies A. Strategic alternatives The current strategies if revise will prove to be very beneficial for the company. The recommended strategies will surely help the company to improve their performance. The recommended corporate strategies are stability, growth, and retrenchment. The recommended business strategies are cost leadership and differentiation. The corporate strategies will help the company to maintain the stability, but the corporation would have only static growth i.e. growth at a slow rate. The business strategies are however suggested taken into account the cost cutting and utilizing methods, they will surely help the financing section of the company, but however risk could not be taken if we implement these strategies. B. recommended strategies The main strategic options that the company has are: To utilize and to execrate most of their strength. To outwit their weakness. To make the most of their opportunities. And to manage their threats in the business. These strategies should be first implemented on ground level first and if prove to be affective they could be used further and prove to be of great use for the company for both long term and short term. 7. Implementation Instituting TQM would help the company to maintain better account of their services and processes. Software professional who has got a little idea about financing, marketing and system analysis can develop this software. As this is a high level program therefore the CEO should be the in charge of this program. The programs are financially feasible as it would not cost much, instead it will help the company in various cost-reduction processes. And also help maintaining their database and accounts. The software should be in beta phase first and then new inclusions will be made depending on the requirements. 8. Evaluation and control The company has an updated information system that helps them to track every activity in the corporation and also provide sufficient feedback on implementation activities and performance. The tools that the company uses can give accurate information about everything about the profit, loss, share prices etc. The information i.e. conveyed is timely and is very well implemented. The corporation is using benchmarking techniques to evaluate its functions and activities. Appropriate standards and measures are being taken while conformance of the recommended strategic plans. Reward system is a bonus for any employee in an organization therefore appropriate rewarding system is taken into account in the corporation.